@hL sQnm` kOmrQy@g~ 58 vn jn~m qQny aqyQ

@j&;~T m`{&@v|qW  a`wr~ yR. amr@s~n
smM s`kc|C` kr @mm lQpQy sks~ k@L~
ajQw~ alh@k`~n~

 
mRl~m sQAhl cQwYpt@y~ ptn~ @mrt cQwYpt nQ;~p`qnyt qYvQd nQ;~p`qkyn~ @gn~ l#bRN q`ykw~vy imhw~y. @m| sQAhl cQwYpt rFsk~ nQ;~p`qny kL sQnm`s~ a{QpwQ @k~. gONrw~nm| nQ;~p`qnykL "sRr @c_ry`" cQwYpt@y~ g`mQNW @f`n~@s~k` h` sn~{&` kOm`rQ rMp$ r$p r`mRvkQ.
 


cQwY`g`r wOL sQrvW wQbR sQnm` k#mr`v eLQmhnt @gn ymQn~ sQAhl sQnm`@v| nv gmn~ mMk~ sthn~ kL @ls~tr~ @j~m|s~ pWrQs~@g~ "@r~K`v" cQwYpt@y~ r$pr`mRvk~...
 

 
XYW l`AkWy sQnm`vt an~wr~j`wQk kWr~wQy aw~kr @qmQn~ nvqQl~lQ j`w&n~wr cQwYpt u@L@l~qW @ls~tr~ @j~m|s~ pWrQs~ a{&k;Ny kL "gm|@prLQy" sQnm` ptyt "rNmyRr" sm|m`ny evk in~qWy agm#wQnQ in~qQr` g`n~{Q m#wQnQy awQn~ pQrQn#mRNR @m`@h`w.... nQ;~p`qk a#n~tn~ vQkYmsQAh, g`mQNW @f`n~@s~k` sh amrn`w~ jywQlk q asl @vwQ. @mrt wQrgw vWmt @pr gQnQ@gn vQn`X vRNR "r`jkWy vQkYmy" cQwYpt@y~ rMp$, psR k@lk kWr~wQmw~ @q~Xp`lkykO vR a`c`r~y a#n~. a#m|. @p@r~r`
 

"a@s`~km`l`" r$p r`mRvk emlQn~ qQBRl`n sh X`n~wQ kOm`r~ @s@nvQrw~n s`lQy a@s`~km`l` @ls...
 

   
   

gmnk a#rBRm

sQAhl sQnm`@v| upw sQqEv a#w~@w~ mWt vsr pns~atkt @pr aq v#nQ qQ@nky. mRl~m kw`n`q sQAhl cQwYpty @ls kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv wQrgw vR@y~ 1947 jnv`rQ 21 v#nQq`y.

kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv pY}m sQAhl kw`n`q cQwYpty @ls iwQh`sgw vRvq e~ pQLQb[ vQvQ{ mwQmw`n~wr q pvwW. s#b#vQn~m sQAhl sQnm`@v| upw sQqEvR@y~ kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv smMQn~ q e@s~w~ n#w~nm| It @prq yn~n pQLQb[v vQvQ{`k`r@y~ aqhs~ mwO@vmQn~ wQ@b|.

kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv nm#wQ pY}m sQAhl kw`n`q cQwYpty 1947 jnv`rQ 21 v#nQq` XYW lAk`@v|qW wQrgw vR bv a#w~wkQ. a#w~w vX@yn~m sQAhl sQnm` vAX kw`@v| mRl~ bWjy htgw~@w~ ek~qhs~ nvsQy hwLQs~ gNn~vlq yn p#nyt pQLQwOrk~ lb`gw h#k~@k~ kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEvt @pr a@p~ r@tQ sQnm` kr~m`n~wy pQLQb[ @s`y` b#lWm wOLQnQ.

sQAhl sQnm`@v| upw sQqEvR@y~w~, mRLQn~m bQhQvR cQwYpty @ls nm| kL h#k~@k~w~ 1925 qW wQrgw kL "r`jkWy vQkYmy" @n`@h`w~ "X`n~w`" cQwYpty y#yQ mw pLkryQ.

e@hw~ XYW lAk`@v| pY}m vrt cQwYptyk~ pYqr~Xny kr wQ@bn~@n~ 1901 vs@r~qWy. e~ mWt vsr 104 kt @pry. ekl XYW lAk`@v| p`ln bly qrn lq~@q~ sr~ @vs~tQ rQj~@v| a`N~dRk`rvry`y. e~ av{Q@y~qW @mrtt cQwYpt @gn~v` pYqr~Xny kQr@m| @g_rvy e~. db|lQv|. an~d|rQ nm#wQ C`y`r$p XQl~pQy`t hQmQ@v|. e~ @qbs~ sh sAgWw@yn~ @w`r nQhV cQwYpty. @mm cQwYpt mRlQn~m pYqr~Xny k@L~ @b`~yr~ sQrkr#vn~ty. eAgln~wyw~ apYQk`@v| @b`~yr~ j`wWnRw~ awr a#wQ vR yRq~{@y~qW bQYw`n&yn~t asRv XYW lAk`vt @gnvRw~ qQywl`@v| k[vRrk @b`~yr~ sQrkr#vn~ r[v` wQbQNQ. @mm nQhV cQwYpt XYW l`AkWy @p`qE mhjnw`vt q#kbl` gw h#kQ vR@y~ 1903 qWy.

a#n~drQ mRlQn~m k@L~ @k`rQk~ byQs~@k`~p~ nmQn~ cQwYpt sm`gmk~ pQhQtRv` g#nWmy. em sm`gm @k`tR@v| q#nt p#@g`~d` @h`~tly wQ@bn s~}`n@y~ pQhQt` wQbQNQ. a#n~d|rQ@g~ sQnm`hl wQbR@N~w~ @mm s~}`n@y~y. uNbm|bR @qkk svQ krn lq sRqE @rq~qk~ wQry h#tQyt p`vQc|cQ krn lqW. ihL pn~wQvl nrBn~@n`~ byQs~@k`~p~ yn~wYy p#w~@wn~q g#lrQ k`r@y`~ pQtRps bAkOvl @h`~ bQm a#wQr$ p#qEr#vlq v`dQ vW cQwYpt n#rBRh. X`l`v @p`@L`v sQ@mn~wQ@yn~ sks~ @n`kL nQs` qRvQl~@ln~ ghn vQy. wQry pQtRps sQt n#rBRvn~ C`y`v ap#h#qQlQ @n`vRvw~ vrQn~vr wQry mw v#@tn iAgYWsQ vcn g#lrQk`ryn~t @pnR@n~ @n`pQtty. stn~ jvnQk`, vQhQU whU h#r ovRn~t vcnvlQn~ pY@y`~jnyk~ @n`vWy. g#lrQ@y~ a`snyk~ Xw qhykQ. wQry iqQrQps a`snyk~ pLmR pAwQy Xw 25 k~, @qv#nQ pn~wQy Xw 15 k~ @ls aykrn lqW.

1901 qW a#n~d|rQ mQygQy psRv sW. v#g~nr~ nm#wQ v&`p`rQky` bys~@k`~p~ pYqr~Xnyt awg#sWy. @k`LB q#nt c`mr~s~ {`n&`g`ry pQhQtQ s~}`n@y~ ohR cQwYpt @pn~vWm s[h` vQX`l kSd`rmk~ iqQk@L~y. @mhQ cQwYpt nrBn~nn~@gn~ Xw qh@y~ sQt r#pQyl qk~v` g`s~wOvk~ ay k@L~y. tW. e~. @j~. nRr~b`yQ (r`jkWy vQkYmy" nQ;~p`qkvry`) @mm k`r~yyt awq#mR@v| @m| av{Q@y~qWy. v#g~nr~ sh nRr~b`yQ ek~v 1909 qW "ln~dn~ byQs~@k`~p~" nmQn~ cQwYpt sm`gmk~ a`rm|x k@L~y. 1924 jRlQ 05 q` nRr~b`yQ Is~tr~n~ fQl~m|s~ @k`m|p#nQ nmQn~ wvw~ cQwYpt sm`gmk~ a`rm|x k@L~y. @m| yt@w~ v#l~lvw~@w~ "olQm|pQy`" nmQn~ sQnm` hLk~ a`rm|x kL ohR 1925 m`r~wO m`s@y~qW ehQ nm @vns~kr It "tQY@v`~lQ" yn nm w#bWy. 1927 qW yLQ ehQ nm "p~l`s`" @ls @vns~ krmQn~ cQwYpt pYqr~XkykO vR nRr~b`yQ 1928 qW cQw~wplm| e~. g`dQnr~ sh e~. el~. wm|byQy` smM hvRl~ vW sQ@l`~n~ wQytr~s~ sm`gm a`rm|x k@L~y. nRr~b`yQ 1938 qW mQy gQ@y~y.

in~psRv iAgYWsQ j`wQk @d`rQk~ @m|jr~ q bthQr rtvlQn~ @mrtt cQwYpt @gn~v` pYqr~Xny krn lqW. e~v` pYqr~Xny kQrm s[h` @k`tRv @l`~ts~ p`@r~ c`mr~s~ {n&`g`r pQhQtQ pY@q~X@y~ em|pyr~ nmQn~ sQnm`hlk~q a`rm|x k@L~y. @k@s~ @vww~ XYW lAk`@v| kYm`nRkSlv cQwYpt pYqr~Xny @n`@k@rn bv q#ngw~ sRpYkt in~qWy cQwYpt pYqr~Xn sm`gmk~ vn mq`n~ sm`gm ehQ X`K`vk~ @k`LB vQv^w k@L~y. ovRn~ mRlQn~m em|pyr~, p#ls~ sh pb|lQk~ @h`~l~ nmQn~ sQnm`X`l` wOnk~ @k`LB iqQkLh. psRv nRvreLQ@y~ k~lQpd| p#vQlQyn~ nmQn~q sQnm` X`l`vk~ mq`n~ sm`gm vQsQn~ pQhQtRvWy. em|pyr~ sh pb|lQk~ @h`~l~ yn X`l`v wY`sjnk sQq~{Wn~ shQw fRl~ sWrQyl~ cQwYpt pYqr~Xnytw~ @vn~ krn lqW.

nRr~b`yQ smM ek~v sQ@l`~n~ wQytr~s~ sm`gm a`rm|x kL g`dQnr~ sh wm|byQy` 1928 qW "olQm|pQy`" sQnm`hl bq~qt gw~h.

psRv jr~mn~ pYqr~XkykO@g~ sh`y a#wQv @h`[ vQ@qs~ cQwYpt @gn~v` pYqr~Xny kL awr mrq`n qEm|rQy@p`L a`sn~n@y~ aq qk~nt wQ@bn~@n~ em olQm|pQy` sQnm` X`l`vyQ. in~psRv @k`LB rgl~ sQnm`hl pQhQtRvWy. @mkl XYW lAk`@v| mq`n~ cQwYpt sm`g@m| kLmn`kr# @ls ktyRwO kL ef~. sW. f`r#k~ (p#rFk~) 1932 qW mrq`@n~ tvr~ @h`~l~ n`t& X`l`v bq~qt @gn ehQ in~qQy`nR nQhV cQwYpt pYqr~Xny k@L~y.

XYW lAk`@v| pY}mvrt pYqr~Xny kL hV shQw cQwYpty "@m@ldQ lv|" y. eyq mrq`@n~ mq`n~ sm`gmt ayw~ em|pyr~ sQnm` X`l`@v| 1929 jRnQ ms pYqr~Xny k@L~y.

ap @m| ihwQn~ s[hn~ k@L~ sQAhl sQnm`@v| @n`v l`AkQk sQnm`@v| upw sQqE vR a`k`ryyQ. e@hw~ sQAhl sQnm`@v| upw sQqEv a#w~@w~q ihw k`lsWm`v wOLqWy. e~ 1946 t @pry.

sQAhl sQnm`@v| upw sQqEvR@y~ 1925 qW "r`jkWy vQkYm@yn~ " b#v| ap ihwqW s[hn~ k@LmR. "r`jkWy vQkYmy" @n`@h`w~ "X`n~w`" smM uw~pw~wQy l#bR sQAhl sQnm` vAX kw`n~qry @b`@h`~ rsvw~ sQq~{Wn~@gn~ @mn~m h`s&jnk sQq~{Wn~@gn~q, wY`sjnk aw~q#kWm|vlQn~q anRn rs gOl`vkQ. s#b#vQn~m e~ kw`n~qryq cQwYptyk~ b[Ey.

mRl~m sQAhl cQwYpty vn r`jkWy vQkYmy nQ;~p`qny kL tW. e~. @j~.nRr~b`yQ sQAhlykO @n`@v|. ohR @b`~r` j`wQk@ykQ. nRr~b`yQt sQAhl cQwYptyk~ nQpqvW@m| @q`LqEk phL vR@y~ 1923 qWy. e@hw~ sQAhl cQwYptyk~ s[h` kw` lQyn~nn~, k#mr` XQl~pWn~, k`r~mQkyn~ @h`~ rMp$mt nU nQLQyn~ @n`sQtQ b#vQn~ nRr~b`yQ e~ g#n sQy mQwOrk vR v#g~nr~tQt p#v#sWy.

" ayQ@y`~ sRU @qyk~.........." y#yQ sQn`@smQn~ kW v#g~nr~ in~qQy`nR kw`vk~ @w`~r`@gn ey sQAhlt @prL` in~ cQwYptyk~ nQpqvn @lst nRr~b`yQt up@qs~ qEn~@n~y. It ekM vR nRr~b`yQ wOn~hRls~ @pY~m v^w~w`n~wyk~ vs~wO bWj krgw~ kw`vk~ @w`~r` gw~@w~y.

r$mw~ kOm`rykOt @pm| b#[Q rj kOm@rk~ kOmrQy@g~ a`qry lb`g#nWmt pYyw~n qrn qE;~T kOm@rk~ vt` @mm kw`v @gwW wQbQNQ. avs`n@y~ qE;~T kOmr` prqv` kOmrQy sh kOmr# awr srN bn~qny a#wQvW@mn~ kw`v nQm`vt pw~@v|.

kw`v @w`~r`gw~ nRr~b`yQ avX& krn k`r~mQk XQl~pWn~ smM lAk`vt p#mQNQ@y~ cQwYpt@y~ v#d a#rBWmty. e@hw~ ohRt mRhRN@qn~nt sQqEvR@y~ vQX`l g#tUvkty. enm| cQwYpt@y~ pY{`n crQwy s[h` nU nQLQyn~ @s`y` g#nWmy. nRr~b`yQ n#vww~ hQwmQwOr# v#g~nr~@g~ up@qs~ p#wWy.

"@l`kO pYX~nyk~ wmyQ.........." m[ @v|l`vk~ kl~pn` kL v#g~nr~ "@h`[yQ..........apQ nU nQLQ@y`~ il~ll` pw~w@r~ q#n~vWmk~ qmmR............." yQ @y`~jn` k@L~y. nRr~b`yQ It ekpyQn~ k#m#wQ vQy. qQn kQhQpykt psR swQpw` pRvw~pwk sQAh@ln~ cQwYptyk~ nQpqvn bv h` ehQ @pnW sQtWmt r$mw~ nU nQLQyn~ avX& bv s[hn~ krmQn~ q#n~vWmk~ pLvQy. v#dQ qvsk~ gwvR@y~ n#w. wr#N wr#NQ@y`~ rFsk~m il~lEm|pw~ ev` wQbQNQ. e@hw~ e~ awr nRr~b`yQ@g~ sQw~gw~ ekq mRhRNk~ @h`~ @n`wQbQNQ.

1923 vs@r~qW @k`LB ngr@y~ p#v#wQ sRr$pW wr#Ny` @w~r@m| wrg@yn~ wm` pLmR w#n qQn`gw~@w~ y#yQ pvsmQn~ ek~wr` wr#NykO il~lEm|pwk~ q#mWy. ohR @k`LB a`nn~q vQqEh@l~ i@gnRm lbmQn~ sQtQ a@ykQ. cQwYpt@y~ rMp$mt a#wQ ekm sRqEsRkm sRr$pW wr#Ny` vWm pmNk~ y#yQ ohR sQy ayqEm|p@w~ s[hn~ k@L~y. kOd` klsQtm kYQktQ kYWd`vt q#dQ a#l~mk~ q#k~vR @mm wr#Ny` ekL @k`LB ngr@y~ @pn~vR s$m byQs~@k`~p~ ekk~m b#lE@v|y. e~ nQs`m smhr# ohRt "byQs~@k`p~ pQs~s`" y#yQ nm| ptb#[Wy. e~w~ ohRt nUvkO vW@m| pQs~sRvk~ @n`wQbQNQ. e~w~ pRvw~pw~ q#n~vWm qEtR @m`@h`@w~qW nUvkO vW@m| a`s`vk~ a#wQvR ohR vh` il~lEm|pwk~ smM alEw gw~ C`y`r$pyk~q y#vWy. @m| wr#Ny`@g~ pQn~wSry qEtR nRr~b`yQ@g~ swOt ihvh` gQ@y~y. wm` @s`yn mRhRN em pQn~wSry wOL s#MvW a#w#yQ ohRt q#nQNQ. vh` sm|mRK prk;Nykt p#mQ@Nn @ls nRr~b`yQ wr#Ny`t vQqElQ pRvwk~ y#vWy. wr#Ny`t a#wQ vR pYWwQ@y~ sWm`vk~ @n`vQNQ. eq` qvs pRr` nUvkO vR psR krn kQyn q$ g#n sQwS ohRt b#lR iAgYWsQ cQwYpt sh e~v`@y~ vWryn~ sQhQpw~ vQy. ohR e~ vWryn~ @mn~ h#sQrmt ptn~ gw~@w~y.

sm|mRK prk;Ny q` @mm wr#Ny`v qEtR nRr~b`yQt a#wQ vR swOt nQm|hQm| n#wQvQy. @m`hR pQn~wSr@y~ sQtQ wr#Ny`t vd` kdvsm| @n`@v|q#yQ nRr~b`yQ sQwWy. ohR a#sR pYX~n kWpyktm wr#Ny` kQsQqE p#kQLWmk~ n#wQv uw~wr qEn~@n~y. kn~@w`~r# k`mr@yn~ ivwt gQy nRr~b`yQ wvw~ kWp@qnkO smM kw`krn~@n~ wm` @qst a#MQl~l qQgOkrmQn~ bv qEtR wr#Ny` sQq~{vn~@n~ kOmk~q#yQ @n`q#n nQhVv sQtQ@y~y. swOt pQrQ mRhRNQn~ n#vw p#mQNQ nRr~b`yQ " apQ obv a@p~ cQwYpt@y~ pY{`n crQwyt @w`~r`gw~w`.........;RtQA wQ@yn qvs ik~mNQn~m qn~v` evn~nm|............" y#yQ wr#Ny`t p#vsR@v|y.

@m| kdvsm| wr#Ny` an~kvrykO @h`~ @n`v psRk@lk @q~Xp`ln @l`~k@y~ mhw~ @prLQyk~ kL smsm`j pk; n`yk a`c`r~y a#n~. a#m|. @p@r~r`y. "r`jkWy vQkYm@y~" pY{`n crQwyt wr#N en~. em|. v @w`~r`gw~ nRr~b`yQ cQwYpt@y~ wr#NQy@g~ crQwy s[h` br~gr~ j`wQk sQbQl~ jQm| nm| wr#NQy @w`~r`gw~@w~ ekl byQs~@k`~p~ vl rMp$m sQAhl wr#NQyn~t whAcQ qm` wQbR nQs`y. r`jkW@y~ vQkYm@y~ qE;~t kOmr#@g~ crQwy s[h` @g~Y;n~ @p@r~r` @w`~r`gw~ awr erQk~ vWr@s~kr, en~. jW. dW. a#l~btQ sQl~v`, @rjQ@n`~l~d| @p@r~r`, pr~sQ @p@r~r` sh @d|vQd| m#nR@vl~ yn XYW l`AkQk@y`~ @ssR crQw s[h` @w`~r`gw~@w~y.

cQwYpt@y~ @pm| jvnQk` n`vl qQyvn~n` oy asbdqW r$gw k@L~y. mRhR@N~ a`@l~p (@m|k~ap~) wvr`@gn sQbQl~ jQm| smM @pm| jvnQk` mvq~qW wm`t vs l-j`vk~ a#wQ vR bvq e~w~ l-j`v m#Vpvw~v` @gn ekW jvnQk`vlt mRhRN qEn~ bvq a`c`r~y @p@r~r` mhw` pvs` wQbQNQ.

kvq`vw~ wr#NQyk@g~ awQn~ al~l` n#wQ mt @m| @pY~m jvnQk` krq~qW q#dQ aphsRvk~ q#nRn`..........." y#yQq en~. em|. @p@r~r` mhw` @k`k~hVl` sQn`@smQn~ kW@v|y.

cQwYpt@y~ sRvQsl~ m`LQg` sh psRbQm| qr~Xn sQyl~l bm|blpQtQy X`n~w @j`~n~ ptRm@g~ pQhQtQ vQX`l m#qErk iqQkrn lqW. em qr~Xn sRpYsQq~{ cQwY XQl~pW em|. s`r~lQs~ m`s~tr~ vQsQn~ sks~ k@L~y.

@mm cQwYpt@y~ asRn~pQt yn jvnQk` kWpykt mRhRNqWmt sQqEvRvw~ en~.em|. t sh jW. sQbQl~ pQm|t asRn~pQt @g`s~ pRr#q~qk~ @n`vWy.

asRn~pQt yn~n pRUvn~ q#yQ pRr~b`yQ asq~qW b#rQ vRvq en~. em|. gw~kttm kQy` sQtQ@y~ pRUvn~ kQy`y. psRv ehQ brpwlkm vth`gw~ en~. em|. @k@s~ @h`~ asRn~ pQt yn h#tQ i@gn @n`gw@h`w~ mhw~ akrw#b|bykt mRhRNqWmt sQqEvn b#v| vth` gw~@w~y. aX~vykO sQtQn mQwOrkO @s`y` gQy en~. em|. ek~qQnkQn~m XSr asRn~ eLvn~nkO bvt pw~vQy. e@hw~ sQbQl~t ev#n~nk~ krgw @n`h#kQ vQy. em nQs` sQbQl~ @vnRvt asRn~pQt yn jvnQk`v s[h` asRn~ {`vn@y~ XOr erQk~ vWr@s~krt kOmrQy@g~ a#[Em| an~qv` g#h#nQyk~ bvt pw~ kr aq`L jvnQk`v r$gw k@L~y. "r`jkWy vQkYmy" m`s hyk~ wOL avsn~ kL awr qkONR in~qWy cQwYpt a{&k; gOp~w vQsQn~ r`jkWy vQkYmy a{&k;Ny krmQn~ k#mr`vq @m@hyvWy.

@b`m|b`@y~ rs`yn`grykqW cQwYpt@y~ qL @s~y` pQtpw~ sAs~krNy kL pRr~b`yQ mRlQn~m

r`jkWy vQkYmy

@b`m|b`y avt ngrvlqWw~, sQAgp~pRr#@v|w~ pYqr~Xny krn lqW. pY}m vrt nQ;~p`qny kL sQAhl cQwYpty vR "r`jkWy vQkYmy" e@wr pYqr~Xny kr lAk`vt @gne~mt on~n @mn~n kQy` wQbQyqW a#wQ vR hqQsQ gQn~nkQn~ q#vW pQLQs~sW gQ@y~y. Ir~;&`k`ryn~@g~ kOmn~wYNyk~ mw pY}m sQAhl cQwYpty "r`jkWy vQkYmy" aUvW gQ@y~ @m| a`k`ryty.

"mm @m| cQwYpt@y~ rMp$@v| hrQm a`X`@vn~... av`sn`vkt cQwYpt@y~ wQbR@N~ @m`nvq kQyl` q#kgn~n l#bR@N~ n#h#..." q#dQ klkQrmkQn~ yRwOv p#vsR en~. em|. byQs~@k`~p~ g#n m@g~ wQbRN a`X`v @m| sQq~{Qy nQs` gQlQhQl` gQy`... in~ ps~@s~ m@g~ hQw @klQn~m a#qQl` gQ@y~ @q~Xp`l@n~t..." cQwYpt b#lWm pv` m` kYm kYm@yn~ adR kL`..." y#yQq pYk`X kr wQbQNQ.

@mm sQq~{Q@yn~ psR 1936 qW sAgWwZ db|lQv|. @q`n~ a#d|vQn~ vQsQn~

pLQg#nWm

nmQn~ cQwYptyk~ nQpqvWm a`rm|x k@L~y. e@hw~ r$gw kL h#kQ vR@y~ rl~ wOnk~ pmNQ. psRv @mm rl~ wO@nn~ smn~vQw vR @ktQ cQwYptyk~ "pLQg#nWm" nmQn~ @k`LB sQnm`hlkqW iAgYWsQ cQwYptyk~ smg pYqr~Xny kr a#w. in~ psRv em|. es~. em|. skW nm#w~w` sQAhl cQwYptyk~ nQpqvWmt aw g#sR@v|y. "@pY~mvwW" nm#wQ em cQwYpty nQ;~p`qnyt @pr s`kc|C`vk~ p#v#w~ vR awr em s`kc|C`vq smgQn~ "@pY~mvwW" nQ;~p`qny ew#nQn~m bQ[v#tQnQ.

anwOr#v en~ wO@ryQsQAhm| ;n~mRg cQwYpt nQ;~p`qn sm`gm nmQn~ "qQv& @pY~my" nm#wQ cQwYpty nQpqvWmt sRq`nm| vQy. e~ s[h` 1946 qW nU nQLQyn~ pQrQsk~q rF@gn ohR in~qQy`v bl` pQtw~ vQy. I. sW. bW. vQ@j~sQAh, o|gn~ r#qYQgO, tW. el~. sQmQ@y`n~ q sQl~v`, vQml` k`n~wQ,kml` k`n~wQ

qQv& @pY~myt

rAgn@yn~ ek~v sQtQyh. "qQv& @pY~my" nQ;~p`qn ktyRwO iw` @smQn~ kr@gn yn awrwOrqW es~. em|. n`ygm| nm#w~w` sQAhl sQnm`vk~ bQhQkQrm s[h` ktyRwO krmQn~ sQtQ@y~y.

1946 mRl~ vkv`nR@v|qW cQwY kl` mRvQ@t`~n~ nmQn~ cQwYpt sm`gmk~ pQhQtRv`gw n`ygm| X`n~wQ kOm`r~ @s@nvQrw~n, @j~. e~. dW. @p@r~r` sh sAgWwZ yR. dW. @p@r~r`@g~w~ sh`y a#wQv sQAhl cQwYptyk~ nQpqvWmt ktyRwO k@L~y. ovRn~@g~ aqhs vR@y~ "XYW vQkYm r`jsQQAh" kw` pRvw cQwYptyt n#gWmy. e@hw~ a{Qk mRqlk~ It v#yvnR a#w#yQ kl~pn` kL ovRn~ cQwYpt aw~pQtpw~ wrgyk~ p#v#w~vWy. e~ s[h` ovRn~ @y`q` gw~@w~ "s`lQy a@X`~km`l`" kw`n~qryyQ. @h`[m aw~pQtpwt r#pQyl~ pn~sQyk mRql~ w&`gyk~ lb`qWmtq ekM vQy.

@h`[m nQr~m`Ny @ls @w~rQ pw~ vR@y~ cQwYkl` mRvQ@t`~n~ sm`g@m|m cQwYpt a{&k;vry` @ls ktyRwO kL X`n~wQ kOm`r~ @s@nvQrw~n lQyR "a@s`~km`l`" wQrn`tkyyQ. wm pQtpw r#pQyl~ pn~sQyyk w&`gyk~ @vnR@vn~ cQwYkl` mRvQ@t`~n~ sm`gm @vw x`rqWmt akm#w~w pLkL X`n~wQ kOm`r~ "a@s`~km`l`" cQwYptgw kQrm s[h` wmn~ smM gQvQsRmkt en @ls il~lWmk~ k@L~y. e@hw~ n`ygm| pYmRK mRvQ@t`~n~ sm`gm It ekM @n`vRh.

@m| k`l@y~qW mWgmR, mQnr~v` n`t& kN~d`ym @b`@h`~ @s~ jnpYQy @vmQn~ wQbQNQ. ovRn~ sQy "kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv" n`t&y e~ vn vQt qr~Xn v`r atsWyk~ krlQyt nAv` wQbQNQ. "a@s`~km`l`" gQlQhW y$m nQs` ar~bRqk`r ww~w~vykt m#qQ vR cQwYkl` mRvQ@t`~n~ sm`gm br~n`d| a#@l`~sQys~ @vl~gm|@p`L jym`n~n (bW. e~. db|lQv|. jym`n~n) smM s`kc|C` kr "kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv" cQwYptgw kQrmt ekMvW ehQ ktyRwO 1964 qW qkONR in~qQy`@v| mqEr ngr@y~qW a`rm|x krn lqW.

wmn~@g~ "a@s`~km`l`" pQtpw cQwYptgw kQrmt akm#wQ vR n`ygm| pYmRK cQwYkl` mRvQ@t`~n~ sm`gm bW. e~ db|lQv|.

kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv

wQryt n#AvW@m| v#dktyRwO a#rBR pRvw a`rAcQ vR X`n~wQ kOm`r~ @s@nvQrw~n cQwYkl` mRvQ@t`~n~ sm`g@m| @s~v@yn~ ivw~v sQ@l`~n~ wQytr~s~ sm`g@m| kLmn`k`r a{&k; cQw~wm|plm| e~. g`dQnr~ mhw` mRN g#sQnQ.

a@s`~km`l`

pQtpw g`dQnr~ @vw lb`qWmt X`n~wQ kOm`r~ ekM vQy.

"kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv" sQnm`vt ngn cQwYkl` mRvQ@t`~n~ sm`gmt kQsQ@s~w~ @qv#nQ @n`vQy yRwO y#yQ sQw`gw~ sQ@l`~n~ wQytr~s~hQ g`dQnr~

a@s`~km`l`

cQwYptgw kQrm a`rm|x k@L~y. e~ anRv n`ygm| in~qQy`@v| m{Rr ngr@y~

kdRvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv

r$gw krn aw@r~qW g`dQnr~q in~qQy`@v|m @k`yQm|bwSr~hQ @sn~tYl~ cQwY`g`r@y~

a@s`~km`l`

r$gw kQrm| krn lqW. e~ awr @mm cQwYpt @qktm @pr v#d a`rm|x kL wO@ryQsQAhm|@g~ "qQv& @pY~myq" in~qQy`@v| r$gw @k@rmQn~ wQbQNQ.

XYW lAk`@v| pY}m kw` n`q cQwYpty @ls v`r~w` w#bWm s[h` ;n~mRg cQwYpt sm`gm "qQv& @pY~myw~", cQwYkl` mRvQ@t`~n~ sm`gm "kdRvRNR @p`@r`n~qEvw~", sQ@l`~n~ wQytr~s~ sm`gm "a@s`~km`l`w~" nQ;~p`qny krmQn~ sQtQ@y~ wrgk`rQ @lsQnQ. vQ@X~;w~vy vn~@n~ pY}m sQAhl kw`n`q cQwYpty bQhQkQrmt urqEn~ wQ@qn`m (wO@ryQsQAhm|, n`ygm| sh g`dQnr~) qYvQd j`wQkyn~ vWmy.

ovRn~ @m@s~ wrgyk nQy#lW sQtQq~qW sQ@l`~n~ wQytr~s~ sm`gm smM wrg v#qWmt 1946 qW wvw~ qYvQd j`wQkyn~ @q@qnkO ek~vWmy. e~ 1946 qW sQ@l`~n~ en~tr~@tQtQmn~tQ sm`gm pQhQtRv`gw~ jbWr~ e~ k`qr~ sh 1947 qW sQnm`s~ sm`gm pQhQtRv`gw~ @k~. gONrw~nm| yn @qpLy.

@k@s~ @vww~ pY}m sQAhl kw`n`q cQwYpty s[h` vR wQyRNR wrg@yn~ jygw~@w~ "kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEvy". r#k~mnW @q~vQ, bW. e~. db|lQv|. jym`n~n, edW. jym`n~n a#wOU XQl~pWhR rMp$ kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv es~. em|. n`ygm|@g~ nQ;~p`qnyk~ vn awr @j`~wQX~ sQAh@g~ a{&k;NykQ. bW. e~. db|lQv|. jym`n~n@g~ @v|qQk` n`t& kw`v a#sR@rn~ pQtpw sks~vQNQ. 1947 jnv`rQ 21 v#nQq` @k`LB kQAs~lQ sQnm` h@l~qW

kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv

mAgl qr~Xny pvw~vn lq~@q~ evk r`j& mn~wYN sx`@v| idm| a#m#wQ dW. es~. @s~n`n`yk mhw` sh em mhw~mQy@g~ pY{`nw~v@ynQ. hrQytm aqt avRr#qE pns~ atkt @pr`wOvy.

"kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv" pQLQb[ mwky av{Q krq~qW ehQ gWwyk~ ptQgw kQr@m|qW sQqE vR h`s&jnk sQq~{Qyk~q @mhQl` s[hn~ kQrm vtW.

@mhQ sAgWwy x`rv sQtQ@y~ n`r`yn ayQy`r~ nm#wQ mly`lm| j`wQk@ykQ. sQq~{Qyt aq`L gWwy x`rv sQtQ@y~ hQyR@g`~ pYn`n~qEy. (hQyR@g`~ m`s~tr~) edW jym`n~n sh @jmQnQ k`n~w` gyn em gW@y~ pq @pLk~ @m@s~y.

m@g sk bB@r~ q#n~ k#r@k~ m`v sQs`r`

kOsRm mmyQ ob m`vt k#r@kn bBr`

kOsRm @n`rQq~q` bBr` @r`n~ uryQ a@n~

sQhl @n`qn~n` n`r`yn~ ayQy`r~ ohR qrn mly`lm| bsQn~ lQy` @m| a`k`ryt g`yn` krn~n#yQ g`yk g`yQk` yRvLt gy` @pn~vWy.

e~ @m@s~y,

m@g~ @;k @bm@r~ @dn~ @k@r@k~ m`v ;Q;`r`

kOsRm @mmyQ nRB m$ v#t k#@r@kn @bmr`

kO;Rm @n`rQ;~d` @bmr` @r`n~ hR@ryQ y@n~...

@my a#sR hQyR@g`~ bd al~l`@gn sQn`@smQn~ "hQt@gnq#yQ" n`r`yn~ ayQy`r~@gn~ a#sWy. @m| a`k`r@y~ rsvw~ sQq~{Wn~ smM r$gw kL "kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv" wrg@yn~ pLmR s~}`ny @gn wQrgw @vq~qW sQ@l`~n~ wQytr~s~ sm`gm nQpq vR "a@s`~km`l`" @qv#nQ sQAhl cQwYpty @ls 1947 a@pY~l~ 09 v#nQq` wQrgw k@L~y. dW. es~. @s~n`n`yk yRvL "a@s`~km`l`" mAgl qr~Xny s[h` q @k`LB rgl~ sQnm`hlt pY{`n amRw~wn~ @ls shx`gQ vRh. XYW l`AkQkykO sm a{&k;Ny kL (X`n~wQ kOm`r~ @s@nvQrw~n) pY}m sQAhl cQwYpty @ls @mn~m pY}m @ewQh`sQk kw`n`q cQwYpty @lsq sQAhl sQnm` vAX kw`@v| pQtR awr sthn~ vQy. a@s`~km`l` @ls emlQn~ qQBRl`nw~, s`lQy kOmr# @ls X`n~wQ kOm`r~ @s@nvQrw~nw~ rMp$h. e@mn~m pY}m vrt s~v`{Wn gW wnR a#wOLw~ vR a@s`~km`l`hQ sAgWwy a{&k;Ny k@L~ @m`@h`md| gvRs~y. "kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv" sh "a@s`~km`l`" yn cQwYpt @qktm @pr v#dktyRwO a`rm|x kL "es~. wO@ryQsQAhm|@g~ "qQv& @pY~my" wQrgw kQrmt sQqEvR@y~ "kptQ a`rk;ky`" cQwYptytw~ psRvy. "a@s`~km`l`"t psR 1948 @pbrv`rQ 23 v#nQq` pY}m vrt XYW lAk`@v| s~vx`vQk qr~Xn a#wOLw~ sQAhl kw`n`q cQwYpty @ls v`r~w`vk~ wbmQn~ "kptQ a`rk;ky`" wQrgw vR awr sAgWwy a{&k;Ny kL bBrFn~q@g~ XYWn`w~ @p@r~r` (bW. es~. @p@r~r`) pY}m XYW l`AkQk cQwYpt sAgWw a{&k;vry` vQy. kptQ a`rk;ky`q bW. e~. db|lQv|. jym`n~n@g~ @v|qQk` n`t& kw`vkQ.

"lyQl` mj~nR" @pm| kw`v @y`q`gw~ "qQv& @pY~my" wQrgw vR@y~ in~psR m#yQ 22 v#nQq`y. e~ sQv|v#nQ sQAhl cQwYpty @lsy. gWw rcn` kL XYQmwQ kr#N`@q~vQ pY}m sQAhl cQwYpt gWw rcQk`vQy @ls snQtRhn~ vRv`y. in~psR em vs@r~m @qs#m|br~ 03 v#nQq` mQnr~v` nQ;~p`qkyn~ vQsQn~

v#rqEnR kOr#m`nm

q 1949 m#yQ 16 v#nQq`

mn pYyw~ny

q wQrgw krn lqW. mn pYyw~ny sQAh@ln~ pY}m vrt @qbs~ kv` pYqr~Xny kL cQwYptyyQ.

XYW l`AkQkykO wnQv a{&k;Ny kL pY}m kw`n`q sQAhl cQwYpty wQrgw vR@y~ 1949 a@g`~s~wO 19 v#nQq`y. e~ "kdvRNR @p`@r`n~qEv" wQrgwvW avRr#qE @qkkOw~ m`s hwkt pmN psRvy. a{&k;vry` sQrQ@s~n vQmlvWry. cQwYpty "am|m`"y. nQ;~p`qkvry`q vQmlvWry. "am|m`" cQwYpty smgQn~ sQAhl sQnm`vt pQvQsQ sQrQ@s~n vQmlvWr @hL sQnm` vAX kw`@v| alEw~ pQtRvk~ @prlR bvq amwk kL yRwO n#w.

@m| awr sQAhl sQnm`v s[h` q`ykw~vy uprQm@yn~ q#k~vR qYvQd j`wQk a{&k;vr#n~ vn db|lQv|. em|. es~. wm|@p`~, @r`bQn~ wm|@p`~, @pY~m|n`w~ @m`r`ys~, @j`~ @q~v| a`nn~q~, @k~. @vn~gd`slm| (@k~. @vn~km|), @j~. @sl~vrw~nm|, db|lQv|. es~. m@h~n~qYn~, tW. xv`nn~qn~, em|. es~. a`nn~qn~, es~. sQvnn~qn~, es~. r`mn`qn~, @lnQn~ @m`r`ys~, a#n~tn~ @gYgrQ, @j~. r`srw~nm|, dW. mrQyq`sn~, em|. vW. b`ln~ sh bn~qYn~ rw~nm|, sQvq`sn~ v#n~nvRn~ q @mhQl` sQhQpw~ kL yRwOy.

e@mn~m XYW l`AkWy qYvQd j`wQkyn~ awr qk; cQwYpt k#mr` XQl~pWhR rFsk~ q sQAhl sQnm`v smM ek~v sQtQyh. e~. vW. em|. v`sgm|, em|. es~. a`nn~qn~, vW. v`m@q~vn~, @j~. @j~. @y`~gr`j`, lQn~ q @k`s~w`, en~. @sl~v@q`@r~, @k~. vQlQym|s~, es~. @w~@vn~qY, es~. en~. sQAsRbYmnQym| e~ awrQn~ kWp @q@nkQ.

sQAhl sQnm`vt eq` @mq` wOr sQnm` k^wQ rFsk~ q`yk vW a#w. @mm lQpQy qWr~G vn b#vQn~ gm|@prLQy, sA@q~Xy, bBr# a#vQw~, s#nsRm @k`w#nq, prswO ml~, nQ{`ny, v#lQkwr, @s`l~q`qE un~n#@h~, hAs vQlk~, h[y`, sQrQ@b`~ ayQy`, p`r qQ@g~, wOA mA hn~qQy, vWr pRrn~ap~pR, ahs~ gv|v, sr#Ag@l~, h`rlk;y, cN~dQy`, kr#mk~k`r@y`~, pLM#tQ@y`~, @p`dQ ml~lW v#nQ klE sRqE cQwYpt @mn~m vr~N sQnm`@v| sm|pY`p~wQy smM ek~vR rn~mRwO qRv, qdym, prQw&`gy, @q@vnQ gmn, kQYs~wO crQwy, k#dpwk C`y`, ml~@qNQ@y~ sQmQ@y`n~ (@mhQ rAgny @vnR@vn~ a@n`~j`t rjw myRr sm|m`ny hQmQvQy) ssr @c|wn`, pRrh[ kUvr, s@r`~j`, ag~nQq`hy, sRrQy arN @mn~m aq wQrgw vn rn~qQy qhr qk~v` (mWt amwrv wvw~ ann~wvw~ cQwYpt a#ww~ idkd pYX~ny mw nm| vX@yn~ s[hn~ kQrm asWr#y) sQnm` pt vQX`l pYm`Nyk~ pns~ at vsrk sQAhl sQnm`@v| mwky yLQ yLQw~ sRv[vw~ krvmQn~ ap awr rF[W wQ@bn awr, @l`v sQtQn qk; pYvWN nUvn~ smM krt kr rMp$@m| qs~km| a#wQ @hL sQnm`@v| sk~vQwQ g`mQNW @f`n~@s~k` q @mhQl` sQhQpw~ kQrm yRwOkmkQ. e@mn~m @pY~m| jyn~w~ @j`~ a@b|vQkYm, sQrQl~ vQkYm@g~, vQjy kOm`rwOAg, @t`~nQ rNsQAh, rvWn~qY rn~@qNQy, pQyq`s gON@s~kr, amrsQrQ klAsRrQy, snw~ gONwQlk, @r`bQn~ pYn`n~qE a#wOU wvw~ @b`@h`~ rAgn XQl~pWn~ @mn~m r#k~mNQ @q~vQ, p~@l`rQd` jylw~, sn~{&` kOm`rQ, k~l#rQs~ q sQl~v`, jWvr`NQ kOr#kOlsRrQy, k`n~wQ gONwOAg, rt` rw~n`yk, m`lnQ @f`n~@s~k`, gWw` kOm`rsQAh, s~vr~N` ml~lva`rc|cQ, sRmn` amrsQAh, XYQy`NQ amr@s~n, r$bQ q m#l~, @r`~hQNQ jy@k`dQ, X`n~wQ@l~K`, @qnvk h`mQ@n~, vWN` jy@k`dQ, sbWw` @p@r~r` a#wOU wvw~ @b`@h`~ XQl~pQNQyn~ q sQAhl sQnm`@v| pns~ at vsrk gmn~ mM smrq~qW sQhQ kL yRwOy.

 

 

 
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