j`wQk smgQyt mA p`qn s#b$ sQAhl avRr#q~q

sQAhl avRr#q~q kvq` @k@s~ a#rBQNQ q#yQ kQv @n`h#k. sQAhl j`wQy h` sQAhl rt vX@yn~ vsr @qqhs~ gNnk~ wQs~@s~ p#vw en b#vQn~ sQAhl avRr#q~qt q ewrm|m qQg iwQh`syk~ a#w#yQ sQwWm s`{`rNy. aq vn vQt sQAhl h` hQn~qE alEw~ avRr#q~q sQAhl h` @qmL avRr#q~q a`qW vX@yn~ ehQ nm vQk^wQ krnR l#b a#w. e@s~ krnR l#bR@v| @qmL @h`~ sQAhl s`m`n& jny` vQsQn~ nm| @n`@v|. rt wOL vr\gv`qy s~}`pQw kr ehQ vgkWm| wvw~ @k@nkOt pvrn @q~Xp`lkyn~ h` Iny` n&`y`c`r\yvr#n~ vQsQnQ. yRq~{y p#vwQ sm@yhQ ap y`pnyt @g`s~ @qmL jnw`v awrt q gQ@ymR. e~ sQAhl avRr#qE smyk~ vR@yn~ ap rF@gn gQy avRr#qE w$gQ @qmL jny`t q iw` sRhqv pQrQn#mR@vmR.

sQAhl avRr#q~qt apQw~ mwk~ vRN` @n~q?" kQy` a@p~ w$gQ @qmL jny` @s@nhsQn~ b`r gw~h. ap kOd` k`l@y~qW avRr#qE k`ly avRr#q~q yn vcn@y~ sQAhl avRr#q~q yn vcn@y~w~ @m| avRr#qE smy h#[Qn~vR nmRw~ It @qmL @h`~ hQn~qE v#nQ up pqyk~ a$[` wQbR@N~ n#w. a$p` pAc`Ag lQ@whQ sthn~v wQbR@N~ avRr#qE c`rQwY avRr#qE uq`v avRr#qE n#kw~ kQy`y. e@hw~ aq vn vQt e~ s#b$ sQAhl avRr#q~@q~ nm vQk^wQ krnR l#b a#w. eyQn~ j`wQk smgQyt pqnm| vR j`wQk uw~svyk vtQn`km n#wQv @g`s~ wQ@b|.

@m| pQLQb[ iwQh`s wwO vQmsWmt pRr`vQq&`w~mk @h`~ @ewQh`sQk s`{k @svWm avX& @n`@v|. nWwQ wr\k @gnh#r p$mk~ q avX& n#w. kOmk~ @hyQn~q yw~ @m| kr#NR sm`j vQq&`w~mk sAsQq~{Qyk~ b#vQnQ. sm`j@y~ ym| ym| pQLQg#nWm| sQqEvnR@y~ sm`j@y~ jWvw~vn jnw`v@g~ s`mRhQk kYQy`k`rkm| mwyQ. ek~ ek~ pRq~glyn~@g~ kYQy`k`rkm| ovR@n`vRn~t @vns~ v sQqEvn vQt e~v` sm`j@yn~ b#h#r @vyQ. n#wQnm| @p_q~glQk @qyk~ @ls pvwQyQ. s`mRhQk kYQy`k`rkm| sm`jy wOL whvRr# vWmt nm| s`mRhQkv k}` krn x`;`v s`mRhQk c`rQwY v`rQwY vQ{Q h` e~ anRv kYQy` kQrWm q blpvw~vyQ. e~ anRv @mrt 1505 t @pr sQyyt sQyyk~m q vsr pNhkt @pr sQyyt asRvk~ pmN q aq vn vQt q sQyyt h#w~w$phk~ pmN q vn @mrt jnghn@yn~ v#dQ pQrQs vR q, rt h` j`wQy @g`dng` pvw~v`@gn a`v` vR q sQAhl jn @k`t@s~ sQwOm| p#wOm| c`rQwY v`rQwY h` kYQy`k`rkm| mw a@pY~l~ m`s@y~ eL@Bn avRr#qE uw~svy sks~ vW wQ@b|. ehQ @qmL @h`~ hQn~qE lkONR kQsQvk~ n#w. @b_q~{ lk;N nm| a#wOLw~v a#w. e@s~ vR@y~ mhQn~q`gm@yn~ psRv sQAhly` @b_q~{ vR nQsyQ.

hQn~qE blp$m| vsr qhs~ gNnk~ wQs~@s~ @c`~l p`N~d& h` @qmL jn @k`ts~ a#sR@rn~ rt wOL kYQy`w~mk vR nmRw~ sQAhly` @b_q~{ vR v` @s~ hQn~qE vR@y~ n#w. e@hw~ 1509 n~ psRv bthQr mQ;n`rQ blp$m| mw sQAhly` k@w`~lQk h` kYQs~wQy`nQ vQy. hQn~qEn~ pv` sQAhl c`rQwY vQ{Q pQLQ@gn sQAhl avRr#qE p#v#w~vRh. e@hw~ k@w`~lQk h` kYQs~wQy`nQ vR sQAhlyn~@gn~ bhRwry sQAhl avRr#qE uw~svy pYwQ@k;~p kLh. nw~wl pQLQgw~h. sm`j vQq&`w~mkv bln vQt @p@nn @mm sw& s`{k mw @mrt jny` @p`qE@v| pvw~vn j`wQk uw~svy pUqE vQy. sQAhl avRr#qE uw~sv@y~ c`rQwY vQ{Q @n`pQLQp#q e~ @vnRvt nw~wl~ c`rQwY vQ{Q hRqE a`gmQk uw~svyk~ @ls pmNk~ @n`v avRr#qE uw~svyk~ @ls p#v#w~vWmt a@b_q~{ vR sQAhl@y`~ n#BRr# krnR l#bRh. sQAhl avRr#qE uw~svyt kN@k`k` h#VR@v| eq` sQtyQ. It vgkQv yRw~@w~ sQAhl @b_q~{yn~ @h`~ k@w`~lQk h` kYQs~wQy`nQ vR s`m`n& sQAhl jny` @n`@v|. k@w`~lQk h` kYQs~wQy`nQ a{Qk`ryyQ. mr\sQlWn~ jy@k`dQ pQywOm` v#nQ ay @m| ww~w~vy @vns~ kQrWmt v#r q#r$ nmRw~ s`r\}k @n`vR@y~ bthQr g#wQ k@w`~lQk h` kYQs~wQy`nQ e~k`{Qk`ry ey @n`rQs~sR nQsyQ.

nw~wl~, @vsk~, @@w@p`Agl~, r`ms`n~ v#nQ uw~sv e~ e~ a`gm|vlt ayw~ @vyQ. e~ e~ a`gmQkyn~ em uw~sv pvw~vn awr a@nkOw~ a`gmQkyn~ q e~v`t gr# kQrWm e@rhQ @n`vWm sw~ c`rQwY {r\mykQ. sQAhl avRr#qE uw~svy ev#n~nk~ @n`@v|. @mrt sQylE @qn` ek~m pvw~vn j`wQk uw~svy vQy yRw~@w~ eyyQ. sQAhl avRr#qE uw~sv@y~ sm`j vQq&`w~mk p#w~w g#n vQmr\Xnyk~ kr ey rtt qQyyRwO nmRw~ @mrt sm`j vQq&`Zyn~ ev#nQ yhpw~ v#dt @y`mRvn bvk~ @n`@p@n~. ovRn~ @pnW sQtQn~@n~ sQAhlw~vyt e@rhQ mwv`q kN~d`ym @vnR@vnQ. sm`j vQq&`v bthQrQn~ p#mQNQyk~ vWmw~, bthQr r`mRv wOL sQAhlw~vyt e@rhQvWm s`m`n& @qyk~ vWmw~ nQs` sm`j vQq&`Zyn~ v#dQ@qn` sQAhlw~vyt e@rhQ @vwQ. epmNk~ @n`v @qmL IL`m| wYs~wv`qyt h` @bqEm|v`qyt ud@gdQ @qwQ. ev#nQ sm`j vQq&`Zyn~@g~ sQAhl avRr#qE uw~sv@y~ sm`j vQq&`w~mk vtQn`km @hLQqrv| kQrWmk~ a@p~k;` kL @n`h#k. ovRn~ uw~s`h qrnR a#w~@w~ q sQAhl @qmL @h`~ sQAhl hQn~qE avRr#qE uw~svyk~ nQr\m`Ny kr sQAhl avRr#qE uw~sv@y~ @p`qE sm`j vQq&`w~mk h` j`wQk agy n#wQ kQrWmt vQy h#kQyQ.

rtk~ h` j`wQyk~ vX@yn~ n#gW sQtWmt nm| e~ rt wOL sQylE jnw`v e~kr`XW vn j`wQk uw~svyk~ wQbQy yRwOmy. bthQr kYmyt nm| ovRn~ uw~s`h qrnR@y~ @l`v h#mrtkm wm sAs~k^wQy s~}`pQw kQrWmyQ. e~ e~ rtvl j`wQk ann&w` a`rk;` kQrWmt ovRhR anRbl @n`@qwQ. j`wQk ann&w`vn~ v#vsR wrmt e~ e~ rtvl bthQr kYmy s~}`pQw kQrWmt h#kQ vn @hyQn~ ovRn~ h#m vQtm uw~s`h qrnR@y~ @vnw~ rtvl j`wQk ann&w`vn~ vQn`X krlWmty. e@s~ vQn`X kQrW@mn~ anwOr#v e~v` g#n pr\@y~;N sm`j vQq&`w~mk g@v|Xn kQrWm q bthQryn~@g~ kYmykQ. a#@mrQk`@v| rwO in~qQyn~vr#n~ h` os~@tQYlQy`@v| a#@b`~jQyn~vr#n~ g#n aq bthQr@y`~ ev#nQ pr\@y~;N kr @p`w pw pv` lQywQ. ap rt wOL q b`hQr vRvmn`v vW wQbR@N~w~, aqw~ wQ@bn~@n~w~ @mrt j`wQk ann&w`v vQn`X kQrWmyQ. @bqEm|v`qy kYQy`w~mk kQrWm h` j`wQk sQrQw~ vQrQw~ avwk~@s~r# kQrWm q bthQr pn~nyt mns h` a#[Em| p#L[Em| kw`bh a`qQy sks~ kQrWm q e~ s[h` ovRn~ @y`qn upkYmyQ.

aq @mrt bthQr blvwOn~ @n`m#ww~ ovRn~@g~ a{&`pn kYmy @q~Xp`ln kYmy h` nWwQy q kYQy`w~mk @vyQ. e~ wOLQn~ bQhQ@vn v#dQ pQrQs (sQAhl @qmL sh mRs~lQm| @n`v) bthQr pQrQskQ. enm| bthQryn~@g~ vRvmn`vn~ itR kQrWm @vnR@vn~ q#n @h`~ @n`q#n k#p vW kYQy` krn pQrQskQ. ev#nQ ugw~ bRq~{Qmw~ h` @q~Xp`ln pQrQsk@gn~ r@tQ j`wQk ann&w`vn~ a`rk;` kQrWmk~ bl`@p`@r`w~wO vQy @n`h#k. sQAhl avRr#q~q sQAhl h` hQn~qE @h`~ sQAhl h` @qmL avRr#q~qk~ @ls nm| krnR lbn~@n~w~, nw~wl~, @@w@p`Agl~ h` r`ms`n~ v#nQ a`gmQk uw~sv @vn~ @vn~ vX@yn~ jnvr\gvl avRr#qE uw~sv @ls s#lkWmt vkY`k`rv jnw`v @p`LBvnR lbn~@n~w~ ovRn~ vQsQnQ. @mm bthQr uvqE@rn~ j`wQy mRqv` g#nWm aq iw` asWr# k`r\yyk~ vW wQ@b|. j`wQk v#qgw~kmk~ a#wQ @q~ sQAhl @b_q~{ kQy` @vn~ kr e~v` sQAhl @b_q~{yn~t sWm` kr asQAhl a@b_q~{ jn @k`ts~ ovR@n`vRn~@g~ r`mR wOL @k`tR kQrWm bthQryn~@g~ pQLQ@vw vW a#w. e~ pQLQ@vw kYQy`w~mk krvWmt bthQryn~@g~ a{&`pn kYmy, @q~Xp`ln upkYm h` nWwQy anRv h#dgs~vnR l#bR bthQr g#wQ vQX`l pQrQsk~ ap rt wOL sQtQwQ. r@tQ @q~Xp`ln bly qrnR@y~w~, en~. jW. o|. pvw~v` @gn ynR@y~w~ j`wQyt ugn~vnR@y~w~ ovRn~ vn vQt j`wQkmy vtQn`km| rt wOL whvRr# vnR@y~ @k@Ls q? sQAhl avRr#qE uw~svy mRU r@tQm j`wQk uw~svy @ls smrmQn~ j`wQk smgQy a#wQ kQrWm s[h` ey @y`q` g#nWmt b`{` pmRNRvnR@y~ @m| bthQr g#wQ pQrQsyQ.

wvw~ p#w~wkQn~ bln vQt eq` ahQAsk vQ@n`~q`s~v`qyk~ q lbmQn~ ovR@n`vRn~t yRwOkm| itR krmQn~ sm`jmy vtQn`kmk~ a#wQv p#v#w~vR sQAhl avRr#qE uw~svy aq vn vQt bthQr aAg ekwO vW @klsW a#w. mw~p#n~ h` sRqEv mh` prQm`n vX@yn~ sQAhl avRr#qE uw~svyt ek~ vW a#w~@w~ bthQr blp$m| nQsy`. e~ @h~wO @k`t @gn pn~sl~ y$m, n$gm| y$m, mv|pQy v#dQhQtQyn~t bRlw~ hRr#U qW a`c`r kQrWm v#nQ sw~ c`rQwY axQbv` @b_q~{yn~ awr pv` sQAhl avRr#q~@q~ bWmw~km, sRqEv h` kl@k`~l`hl a#wQkr g#nWm q v#dQ vW a#w. n#kwt v#d a#l~lWm a`h`r pQsWm, a`h`r anRxv kQrWm v#nQ @q~ vQX`l sm`j vQq&`w~mk vtQn`km| a#wQ c`rQwYyQ. mRU rtm ekwO vW r@tQ h#m @qn`m e@s~ kr@w`w~ ey rtt @m`n wrm| a`XQr\v`qyk~ l#@bn @qyk~q? e@s~ krnR @vnRvt a#w#mRn~ n#k#wt v#d kQrWm v#nQ @q~ smc|clyt lk~ krwQ. e~v` @l_kQk sm|mRwQ bv vth` @n`gn~n` a#w#m| xQk;Rn~ pv` n#k#w~vlt vQr#q~{v bN kQymQn~ j`wQkmy vR vtQn`km| avwk~@s~r# krwQ. sm|mRwQ sw&yn~ @n`q#k h#m @qn`m @m| a`w~m@y~qWm nQvn~ q#k~vWmt uw~s`h qrn ev#nQ xQk;Rn~@g~ @q~Xn` q rtk~ j`wQyk~ vX@yn~ n#gW sQtWmt b`{`vn~ @vyQ.

j`wQkmy vR vtQn`kmt e@rhQ vn @mv#nQ b`{`vn~ vth` @gn sQAhl avRr#qE uw~svy j`wQk vtQn`kmk~ a#wQ r@tQ h#m @qn` vQsQn~m c`rQwY vQ{Q pvw~vn a@p~ r@tQ ann& vR (@vnw~ rtvlt vd` @vns~ vR) mh` j`wQk uw~svyk~ @ls p#v#w~vWmt h#kQ @v@w`w~ ey rtk~ h` j`wQyk~ vX@yn~ @l`~k pYj`v awr apt n#gW sQtWmt q pYbl Xk~wQyk~ vnR a#w. @q~Xp`ln pk; @x~q xSmQy vX@yn~ @bq` g#nWmt ar a[Qn @bqEm|v`qy nQs` asmgQv sQtQn rtv#sQyn~ smgQ kQrWmt q eb[E sQAhl avRr#qE j`wQk uw~svy up@y`~gW kr gw h#kQy. vsr qhs~ gNnk~ wQs~@s~ rt h` j`wQy @g`dn#gS a`rk;` kL pQrQs sQAhlyn~ vn @hyQn~ em j`wQk uw~svyt sQAhl avRr#qE uw~svyyQ nm| kQrWm yRk~wQ yRk~w @qykQ. e@s~w~ kL @n`h#kQ nm| a@pY~l~ m`s@y~ eL@Bn @mm j`wQk uw~svy bk~mh u@Ll @h`~ avRr#qE uw~svy vX@yn~ nm| kr p#v#w~vW@mhQq vrqk~ n#w. e@s~ vn vQt @vnw~ avRr#qE uw~svyk~ rt wOL wQbQy @n`h#k. mRU rtm c`rQwY v`rQwY pvw~v` yRwOkm| itRkrn vQ@n`~q vn mh` j`wQk avRr#qE uw~svy ey vQy yRwOyQ. jnvr\g @x~qyk~ q @n`wk` n$gm| ymQn~ ovR@n`vRn~ swOtR vn qEk s#p @bq` gn~n` evn~ avRr#qE uw~svyk~ @v| nm| uwOr# h` n#@gnhQr @vnm r`j&yk~ bQhQkr g#nWmt qrn anvX& uw~s`hy q i@b|tm aw~h#@rnR a#w. smgQ sm|pn~n j`wQyk~ rt wOL bQhQvWmtw~, emgQn~ rt n#AvWmtw~ a@pY~l~ m`s@y~ eL@Bn @m| mh` j`wQk uw~svy @y`q`gw h#kQ vnR a#w. s#mt sRb alEw~ avRr#q~qk~ @v|v`_

@q~X@pY~mW xQk;R @prmR@N~ @l~km|
@bAgmR@v| n`lk hQmQ

 

 
Powered By -


         sWm`shQw up`lQ pRvw~pw~ sm`gm
            aAk 223 , b|lRm#n~dl~ p`r, @k`LB 13, XWY lAk`v