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s{`wOk krVRvl iwQh`s kw`v

sm|pRt, sm|pRtk, smRq~g a`qW vqn~ ap@g~ v&vh`r b@shQ nQwr x`vQw @n`vn b#vQn~ em vqn~ ewrm| hRr# pRr#qE x`vyk~ qk~vn~@n~ n#w. nmRw~ {`wO krVR yn~n @b_q~{`gmQkyn~ vX@yn~ hRr# pRr#qE vqnkQ sm|pRt, smRq~g, @p~ck, @p~tQk`, krN~d, @ls sAs~k^w x`;`@vn~ q sm|pRt vAd@g`~tk, krN~d , smRg~g @ls @hL @hvw~ sQAhl bsQn~ q h[En~vnR lbn~@n~ {`wO krVRy.

{`wO krVR pQLQb[ av{`ny @y`mR kQrW@m|qW vQ@X~;@yn~ ehQ av{`ny in~qQy`vt h` lAk`vt @y`mR kL yRwOy. nmRw~ w`yQln~wy, mQy#n~m`r\ k`m|@b`~jy a`qW @b_q~{`gmQk rtvl q {`wO krVR x`vQw vn bv qk~nt pRUvn. s`hQw& mRl`XY , pRr`vQq&`w~mk mRl`XY a`qQ@yn~ @mm krVR pQLQb[ iwQh`sy, s~vx`vy a`qQy pQLQb[ kr#NR @s`y` g#nWmt pRUvn. mh` vAXy, qWG nQk`y, j`wk k}`, a`qQyw~ XQl` lQpQ mRl`XYw~, pRr`vQq&`w~mk mRl`XYw~ pqnm| kr gnQmQn~ @m| pQLQb[ @w`rwOr# @svWmt h#kQ @v|. krVRvk~ ynR vQ@X~;@yn~m pRjnWy qYv&y, bRqEn~ vhn~@s~@g~ @h`~ rhwn~ vhn~@s~l`@g~ x;~m`v@X~;, @ewQh`sQk vtQn` kmkQn~ yRw~ x`N~d, pRjnWyw~vykQn~ yRwO x`N~d w#n~pw~ kQrWmt, sRrk~;Qwv w#bWmt nQr\m`Ny krn lq x`N~d vQ@X~;ykQ. @mm {`wO krVR rn~ , rQqW a`qW vtQn` @l`~h vlQn~ q pQw~wl , wB, @l`~kd a`qW mQXY @l`~h vlQn~ q, a#w~ qw~ a`qQ@yn~ q nQr\m`Ny kr a#w. in~qQy`@v| @n`@yk~ pY@q~XvlQn~ hmRvn {`wO krVR m#tQ@yn~ h` XQl` vr\g vlQn~ q nQr\m`Ny kr a#w. krVRvk~ w#n~pw~ kr a#w~@w~ @b`@h`~ vQt s~}Rpyk {`wO gr\xyk~ wOL vWm vQ@X~;ykQ. nmRw~ s$m avs~}`vkqW m s~}Rpyk krVR w#n~pw~ kQrWm qk~nt n#w. @q~XWy, vQ@q~XWy, n`ykyn~ pYxSvr#n~, a`gmQk n`ykyn~ w&`g, smr#Plk hRvm`r#@v|qW @b`@h`~ vQt @b_q~{ rtvl~ awr krVR hRvm`r# kr g#nWm vwr\m`n@y~q, qk~nt a#w. krVRvk s~vr$py h[En~v` @qn~@n~ nm|, ey kOd` s~}Rpyk h#d gnW. s~}Rpykt ayw~ aAg vn @p~s` vLU , gr\xy , swrFs~ @k`tRv, @k`w~ k#rFl~l, cRd` m`NQk&y pv` @mm krVRvl qk~nt a#w. eytm g#l@pn @ls @yqR alAk`r k#tym| @m`~s~wrvlQn~ pv` e~v` alAk^w bv qk~nt pRUvn. s~}Rpyk h#d@y~ pY@x~q, kQhQpyk~ XWY lAk`v wOL @mn~m s`hQw& k^wQvlq s[hn~ @v|. enm| {n&`kr, a`m|l`k`r, Gt`k`r, bRb|bRl`k`r, GN~t`k`r a`qW vX@ynQ. krVR w#nW@m|qW q @mm pY@x~q anRkrNy kr a#wQ bv @p@n~. s~}Rp h#dwl anRv pmNk~ @n`v @vnw~ h#dwl anRv q e~v` nQr\m`Ny kr wQbR bv hmRvn pRr`vQq&`w~mk mRl`XY vlQn~ whvRr# @v|. bRqEn~ vhn~@s~ jWvm`n av{Q@y~ un~vhn~@s~, bRqEn~@g~ {`wO w#n~pw~ kr swrmA hn~qQvl s~}Rp wn` pRq pRj` kQrWmt avsr qW a#wQ bv bRq~{ crQw@yn~ is~mwO @v|. e@s~m un~ vhn~@s~ anRq#n vq`@L~ p@s~ bRqEvr#n~, agY XY`vk uwOmn~ sh sk~vQwQ rjvr#n~ @m@s~ {`wO nQ{n~ kr pRq , pRj` l#bWmt sRqEsR pQrQsk~ bvyQQ. @m`vRn~@g~ {`wO w#n~pw~ kr s~}Rp w#nWmt un~ vhn~@s~ avsr qW a#wQ bv qWGnQk`@y~ s[hn~ @v|.

"mAjR XWY x`;Qw v`s~wO vQq&`v" nm| k^wQ@y~ {`wO krVR hqEn~v` a#w~@w~ @m@s~y. "{`wO krVR s~}Rpyk h#d gnW. ey s`qn lq~@q~ @l`~h@ynQ. rn~, rQqW @h`~ wB @m| s[h` x`vQw krn lqW. ey nv @k`~;~T mAjRs`vkQn~ yRk~w vQy. @mm @k`~;~Tvl {`n&y, pAc@l`~h, a;~TvQ{ p`;`N a`qQy w#n~pw~ krn lqQ. {`wSn~ w#n~pw~ krn lq~@q~ m{&@yhQ vR @k`~;~T@y~y." krVR s~}Rp vl w#n~pw~ krnv` @s~m @ewQh`sQk vQh`r`r`mvl w#n~pw~ kr It pRq pRj` kQrWm, pYqr\Xny kQrWm qk~nt l#@b|. XWY lAk`@v| a#wQ krVR pQLQb[ av{`ny @y`mR kQrW@m|qW qn~w {`wOn~ v#d sQtQn XWY qLq` krVRvtq sRvQ@X~;W s~}`nyk~ hQmQ @v|. krVR pQLQb[ @w`rwOr# @svW@m|qW e~ pQLQb[ av{`ny XWY lAk`vt @mn~m in~qQy`vt q @y`mR kL yRwOy. mk~nQs` q yw~ awWw@y~ bRqE qh@m| @k~n~qYs~}`ny in~qQy`v vn b#vQn~ {`wO krVRvl mRl~ avs~}` in~qQy`@v| vQvQ{ pY@q~X vlQn~ q hmRvn b#vQnQ. bRqEn~ vhn~@s~ jWvm`n av{Q@y~ bQm|bQs`r rjR h` wk~;Ql`@v| pRk~kOs`wQ rjR awr krVR r`XQyk~ hRvm`r# vR bv j`wk k}`vl pv` s[hn~ @v|.

iw` a$w awWw@y~ sQt vwr\m`ny qk~v`m {`wO krVRvlt pRq sw~k`r kQrWm s`m|pYq`yQk XWY l`AkQk @b_q~{ jny` awr a#wQ c`rQwYykQ. @b`@h`~ vQt @mm krVR w#n~pw~ kr a#w~@w~ q`g#b wOLyQQ. emnQs` vQh`ryk q`g#bt hQmQ vn~@n~ v#qgw~ pRjnWy s~}`nykQ. @b_q~{ up`sk up`sQk`vn~ pY}m@yn~ ml~, phn~ pRj` krn~@n~ q svr\Z {`wO shQw s~}Rpyty.

kQY.pR. 3 vn sQQyv@s~ a@X`~k a{Qr`jy`@g~ yRg@y~qW pY}m@yn~ in~qQy`@vn~ bRqE qh@m| @p`~;Ny, kl`vw~ smgm hQmQ vQy. in~ psR lAk`@v| p`lky` vR @qvn p$wQs~ rjR h` rtv#sQ@y`~ bRqE qhmt anRv ktyRwO kQrWmt ptn~ gw~h. mQhQ[E hQmQyn~@g~ up@qs~ prQqQ n#vw in~qQy`vt v#dm kL sRmn s`m@n~ryn~ vQsQn~ in~qQy`@v| sQt bRqEn~ vhn~@s~@g~ p`wY {`wOv h` qkONR akO {`wOv vdm`@gn en lqW. @m| {`wSn~ vhn~@s~l` nQ{n~ kr s~}Rpyk~ w#nR bv mh`vAX@y~ s[hn~ @v|. ey @qvnp$wQn~ rjR iqQkL }Rp`r`m s~}Rpy vn~nt pRUvn. @m| anRv sr\vZ {`wOn~ vhn~@s~l` w#n~pw~ kr lk~qQv vQsR rjvr# lAk`@v| @n`@yk~ pY@q~Xvl q`g#b| w#nvRh. @mm {`wSn~ vhn~@s~l` s~}Rpvl nQ{n~ kQrW@m|qW krVR x`vQw` krn~nt a#w. smk`lWn yRg@y~ in~qQy`@v| @n`@yk~ pY@q~X vlQn~ q krVR hmRvn b#vQn~ evkt XWY lAk`@v| krVR w#nWmk~ @n`kL q in~qQy`@vn~ @h`~ @gn~v` @mm {`wSn~ vd`hQ[Evn~nt a#w#yQ anRm`n kQrWmt pRUvn. krVR pQLQb[ pRr`vQq&`w~mk s`k~;Q lAk`@v| @n`@yk~ pY@q~Xvl krn lq k#NWm|, g@v|;N a`qW@yn~ hmR vW a#w. 1957 h` 1998 k$gl~l qQs~wQYk~k@y~ q#lQvl pY@q~X@y~ q#lQvl @k`t@v@hrQn~ krVR r`XQyk~ l#bW a#w. e@s~m mQhQn~w@l~ mQhQ[E s$y k#NWm| kQrW@mn~ m#tQ krVRvk~ h` rnQn~ nQm krn lq krVRvk~ l#bW a#w. e~ h#r qWGv`pWy r#vn~v#lQ s$y, yt`l vQh`ry, axygQrQy a`qW s~}`n vlQn~ q krVR hmRvWm qk~nt l#@b|. @qvnp$wQn~ rjR@g~ @s`yRr# uw~wQy rjR (kQY. pR. 210-200) mQhQ[E hQmQ@g~ ax`v@yn~ psR un~vhn~@s~@g~ x;~m`v@X~; w#n~pw~ kr qQvyQ@n~ nn~ @qs s~}Rp iqQ kL bv mh`vAX@y~ s[hn~ @v|. mQhQn~w@l~ mQhQ[E s$y k#NW@m|qW hmR vR m#tQ krVRv h` rn~ krVRv @mhQqW vQ@X~; v#qgw~ kmk~ qk~vyQ. em rn~ krVRv wOL vR rn~ mlk~ mw sRRryk bh` x;~m`v@X~; s~vl~pyk~ wQbR bv prNvQw`n mhw`@g~ 1951 vr\;@y~qW v`r\;Qk v`r\w`@v| s[hn~ @v|. @mm krVRv s`AcQ s~}Rp@y~ a`k^wQQy anRv kr a#w.

krVRvl iwQh`sy @svW@m|qW q#lQvl @k`t@v@hrQn~ hmRvn krVR pQLQb[ vQ@X~; av{`nyk~ @y`mR kL yRwOy. kQY.v. 1957 h` 1998 v;r\vl sQqE krn lq pRr`vQq&` k#NWm| wOLQn~ @mm xSmQ@yn~ @s`y`gn~n` lq pRr`vs~wSn~ awr {`wSn~ vhn~@s~l` shQw qB rn~ krVRvk~, agYXY`vkyn~ vhn~@s~l` sQhQ krvn vr\Nvw~ pLQgO krVR @qkk~, wvw~ pLQgO krVR eksQy h#t atk~ (168) , XQl` krVR phk~ sh nQ{n~ gl~, qBrn~ krVR hwk~ (7) yn krVR vQX`l sAK&`vk~ wQbW a#w. @snrw~ prNvQw`n mhw` pvsn~@n~ @mm pRr`vs~wO kQY.pR. pLmRvn sQyvst ayw~ bvyQ. @my`k`r @@cw&yk~ lAk`@v| hmRvn~@n~ pLmR vw`vt bvw~ ohR pvsyQ. ek~ {`wO krVRvk~ pbU @gw~wm| kL @rqQ kdk ow` wQbW a#w. em @rqQ k#b#l~l h` wvw~ m#tQ b[Enk wQbR aMOr# k`bn~ 14 k`l nQr\Nyt lk~ kr a#w. eyQn~ @mm pRr`vs~wO kQY.pR .1 vn sQyvst ayw~ bv sn`} vW a#w. @mm s{`wOk qBrn~ krVRv s`AcQ s~}Rpyt sm`n h#dr#vQn~ yRk~w @v|. @mm bQ@mn~ hmRvn krVRvl a#w~@w~ ek~ @p~s`vk~ pmNQ. pRr`vQq&`Zyn~@g~ mwy vn~@n~ @mm krVRvl lk~;N kQy`p`n~@n~ XWY lAk`@v| s~}RpkrN@y~ mRl~ av{Qy bvyQ. enm| @@cw& krN@y~ pY`}mQk av{Qy bvyQ. s`AcQ s~}Rp@y~ h#dy gw~ krVR XWY lAk`@vn~ hmRvWm vQ@X~; kr#NkQ. r#vn~v#lQs$@yn~, mQhQ[E mh`s$@yn~, q#lQvl @k`t@v@hrQn~ hmR vn krVR s`AcQ s~}Rp@y~ h#dy gnW. mQn~ gm& vn~@n~ krVR nQr\m`NkrN@y~ a`x`;y in~qQy`@vn~ l#bRNR bvyQ. e@s~m qB rn~ @y`q` gnQmQn~ krVR nQr\m`Ny kQrWmt anQv`y&r\@yn~m rjR@g~ m#qQhw~ vWmk~ wQbQy yRwO bv vQq~vwOn~@g~ mwyyQQ. mk~ nQs`q yw~ @m|s` vQX`l @ls vtQn` @l`~h x`vQw@yn~ ey sQqE kQrWmt s`m`n& mhjny`t @n`h#kQ b#vQnQ. e@s~m @m|s` nQr\m`NkrNyk @yqWm s[h` e~ s[h`m, e~ kr\m`n~w@y~m nQy#lQ XQl~pWn~@g~ q`ykw~vy avX& @v|. @m| yRgy vn vQt e~ s$m sm|pwk~m smk`lWn yRg@y~ wQbR bv mQn~ p#h#qQlQ @v|. sAGmQw~w` @wrNQyn~ smM XWY lAk`vt 18 kOlyk XQl~pWn~ p#mQNQ bv vAXk}`vl s[hn~ @v|. @m| XQl~pWn~ awr s~vr\N`kryn~q sQtQn~nt a#w. XWY lAk`@v| vQvQ{ pY@q~XvlQn~ hmRvn krVRvl nQr\m`Nkr#vn~ ovRn~ vn~nt pRUvn.

@mm krVR vtQn` @l`~h vlQn~ kr a#wQ b#vQn~ e~v`@y~ a`rk~;`v pQLQb[vq ym| ym| g#tlE mwO vR bv sQwWmt pRUvn. enm| @mm krVRvl sRrk~;Qw x`vy whvRr# kQrWm s[h` @m|v` @vnw~ @n`vtn` krVRvl bh` nQ{n~ kr a#w. @m| sRrk~;Qw x`vy s[h` m#tQ, XQl` a`qQ@yn~ w#nR krVR x`vQw kQrWm qk~nt pRUvn. axygQrQ@yn~ hmR vW a#wQ rn~ krVRv w#n~pw~ kr wQbR@N~ hRNR glQn~ s~}Rpyk a`k`ryt wn` wQbR krVRvk~ wOLyQ. q#lQvlQn~ hmRvn rn~ krVRv q XQl`my krVRvk w#n~pw~ kr wQbQNQ.

uwOr# in~qQy`@v| vQvQ{ pY@q~XvlQn~ hmRvn mRl~ k`lWn krVR q nQmv` a#w~@w~ @n`@yk~ XQl` vr\g h` m#tQ a`qQy @y`q` gnQmQnQ. @mm mRl~ a`x`;@yn~ lAk`@v|q rn~ krVR XQl` @h`~ m#tQ@yn~ krn lq krVR wOL w#n~pw~ kL`q? yn~n g#tlEvkQ. e@s~m @myQn~ h#M@vn wvw~ v#qgw~ kr#Nk~ is~mwO @v|. enm| @mm vtQn` krVR pQLQb[ XWY lAk`@v| smk`lWn yRg@y~ pv` wQbR an`rk~;Qw x`vyyQ. @m| @h~wO@vn~ vtQn` krVR XQl` @h`~ m#tQ krVRvl bh` nQ{n~ kQrWmt @pL@Bn~nt a#w#yQ sQwQy h#kQy.

XWY lAk`@v| krVR pQLQb[ iwQh`sy @s`y` b#lW@m|qW qLq` krVRv s~}Rpyk nQ{n~ kr @n`wQbRNq eyt hQmQ vn~@n~ sRvQ@X~;W s~}`nykQ. qn~w {`wSn~ vhn~@s~ vd` hQqEv` krVRv mhnRvr yRgyt ayw~ @s~ s#l@k~. XWY qLq` @prh#@r\ @gnyn @prhr krVRv pRj` kr a#w~@w~ mhnRvr yRg@y~ rjkm| kL kWr\wQ XWY r`jsQAh rjR vQsQnQQ.

( kQY.v. 1747-1781) @mm krVRv q s~}Rp a`k^wQy gnW.

krVRvl iwQh`sy pQLQb[ @svW@m|qW ap@g~ asl~v#sQ rtk~ vn in~qQy`vt q av{`ny @y`mR kL yRwOy. @m| vn vQt in~qQy`@vn~ @s`y`@gn a#wQ p#rNQm krVR hmR vW a#w~@w~ kQY.v. 1898 h` kQY.v. 1971 qW @n~p`l @q~X sWm`vt nRqEr# pQp~rv` s~}Rp@y~ kL k#NWm| vlQnQ. @m| krVR s~tWtyQl~ p`;`N vlQn~ nQmkr wQbQNQ. @m|v` wSl x;~m`v@X~; w#n~pw~ kr wQbW a#w. mQn~ ek~ krVRvk bY`h~mW ak~;r@yhQQ lQpQyk~ @k`t` wQbW a#w. ehQ "iyA sl~l nQq@n bRsq xgv@w` s`kQynA, sRkQwQQ xwnA sxgQnQk`nA spRwqlAn" ynR@vn~ s[hn~v wQbQNQ. @m| h#r @n~p`l r`j&@y~ s`AcQ s~}Rp@yn~ q krVR @s`y`@gn a#w. e~v` kQY.pR. 3 vn sQyvst ayw~ @ls slkn awr e~v`@yhQ s#rQyRw~, mRgln~ @qnmt ayw~ {`wSn~ nQ{n~ kr wQbR bv an`vrNy kr@gn a#w. @m|v` kr a#w~@w~ sAKjWrk p`;`N vlQnQ. g~rFnyQtQ p`;`N , rwOv#lQgl~, kUgl~, hRNRgl~, a`qW p`;`N vlQn~ kL krVR xQl~s` s~}Rp vlQn~ @s`y`@gn a#w. @m| h#r m#tQ@yn~ nQmkL krVR q @m| a`XY@yn~ vQX`l sAK&`vk~ @s`y`@gn a#w. @x`~j~pRr\ }Rp@yn~ @s`y`gw~ krVR q kQY.pR 3 vn sQyvst pmN ayw~ bv knQAh#m| pvsyQQ. @m@wk~ in~qQy`@vn~ hmR vR kOd`m s~PtQk krVRv l#bW a#w~@w~ @s`~n`rW nm| s~}Rp@ynQ. ehQ vQ;~km|xy aMlktw~ adRy.

in~qQy`@v| @p;`vr\ qQs~wQYk~k@y~ s`jQkW@b|rW nm| us~ xSmQ@yn~ l#@bn @l`~h krVRv in~qQy`@vn~ @m@wk~ hmRvR krVRvl vQk`Xnyk pYwQPlyk~ bv vQq~vwOn~@g~ mwy vW a#w. @mm krVRv kQY.v. 3 vn sQyvst ayw~ @v|. ey kNQ;~k rjR vQsQn~ krvn lq nQ{n~ uw~svykQ. @mm krVRv ;dsY`k`ry. @mm krVR@v| wQw~ @y`q`@gn @k`tn lq lQpQQyk~ vQy. x`rwy pRr` vQhQqW p#wQrW p#vwQ @b_q~{`gmQk sQq~{s~}`nvlQn~ XQl` h` @n`@yk~ vr\g@y~ p`;`N, m#tQ h` @l`~h vr\gvlQn~ kL krVR l#bW a#wQ bv p#h#qQLQ @v|. ap@g~ XWY lAk`vt q l#@bn~nt a#w~@w~ @mm in~qWy krVRvl a`x`;y vn~nt a#w#yQ sQwQy h#kQy.

XWY lAk`@vn~ hmRvn krVRvl iwQh`sy h` pRjnWyx`vy pQLQb[ kr#NR vQms` b#lW@m|qW @pnW yn~@n~ s{`wOk krVR awWw@y~ sQt @m| qk~v`m iwQh`syk~ h` pRjnWy x`vyk~ @n`ns` iqQrQyt @gn yn bvyQ. k#NWm| h` g@v|;N mgQn~ @m| kr#NR mn`v s~}RRp @v|. krVRvlt hQmQ pRjnWy x`vy XWY lAk`@v| aqw~ pvwW.

sR{r\m` kOm`rQ
sAs~k^wQk wYQ@k`~N v&`p^wQy
m{&m sAs~k^wQk armRql

 
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