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59 v#nQ nQqhs~ qQn uw~svy @vnR@vn~ jn`{QpwQ mhQn~q r`jpk; mhw` j`wQyt nQkOw~ kL pNQvQd@y~ @m@s~ s[hn~ @v|. nQqhs s[h` kL argl@y~qW XYW lAk`@v| sQtQ sQAhl, @qmL, mRs~lQm|, br\gr\, m#@l~ yn sQylEm @qn`m ek` @mn~ ek~vR bv amwk kL yRwO @n`@v|. eb#vQn~ nQqhs lb` gn~@n~ ek~ jnw` @k`tskt @n`v s$m v#sQykOtm bv amRwO@vn~ kQv yRwO @n`@v|.

1948 nQqhs lb` gw~ e~ @ewQh`sQk avs~}`@v|qW evkt sQtQ agm#wQ mh`m`n& dW. es~. @s~n`n`yk mhw` kL kw`@vn~ @k`tsk~ vw~mn~ jn`{QpwQwOm` vQsQn~ @m@s~ upRt` qk~v` a#w.

j`wWn~ @q~Xp`ln sm|bn~{km|, a`gm| @b|q, @n`wk` nQqhs lb` gw~@ww~ lk~v#sQ jnw`v w^p~wQmw~ kQrWm pQNQsyQ.

vw~mn~ jn`{QpwQwOm` mh`m`n& dW. es~. @s~n`n`yk mhw`@g~ kw`@vn~ upRt` qk~v` a#wQ @m| pYk`Xy nQs` @m@wk~ vR sQylEm rjyn~ ihw kW s`mRhQk pYwQpw~wQy nQsQ an~qmQn~ itR kQrW@m| k`r\y@yhQl` as`r\}k vR bvw~ @m| uwOm| pYwQpw~wQy e~ an~qmQn~ p#h#r h#rWm nQs` a@p~ mvRbQmtw~ s@h`~qr jnw`vtw~ iw` av`sn`vn~w ww~w~vykt mRhRN qWmt sQqEv a#wQ bv pQLQg#nWmk~ @n`@v|q?

ek~sw~ ekmRwO r`j&yk~ vX@yn~ yLQ hQs osvn~nt h#kQ bvt mhQn~q r`jpk; jn`{QpwQwOm` qrN aqhs h` ek~sw~v ekmRwOv kYQy` krn@mn~ ewOm` @m| krn il~lWm r@tQ sQtQn pY{`n j`wQyt ayw~ pQrQs~ pmNk~ @n`v sRU jnw` @k`ts~q avQv`q@yn~ pQLQgn~n` bvt kQsQqE s#kyk~ n#w. vr\g vX@yn~ @bqW sQtQn @wk~ j`wQyk~ vX@yn~ n#gW sQtWm kL @n`h#kQ @qykQ. eb#vQn~ ap awr a#wQ sQylEm mw@b|q amwk kr qm` a`w~m`r\}k`mW h#MWm| mRlQn~ upRt` j`wQ a`l@yn~ ek~sw~v v#d kQrWm q#n~ avX&v a#w.

a@p~ mv|bQm mRhRN p` a#wQ qE;~krw` vQs[` g#nWm pQNQs wm` smg ek~vn @mn~ ewOm` l`AkWy sQylE jn @k`ts~vlt a`y`cny kr sQtW. r@tQ an`gw axQv^q~{Qyt hrs~ vW a#wQ @l`kOm b`{ky pvw~n` vr\gv`qW, pYX~ny @v|. @my vQs[` gw~@w~ nm| a@p~ sAvr\{ny qs gONykQn~ ihL ynR @n`anRm`ny. apt a#wQ j`wQk sm|pw~ nQsQ an~qmQn~ @y`qv` gn~@n~ nm| l#bQy h#kQ sAvr\{ny bl`@p`@r`w~wO vn ilk~k ik~mv` ynR nQs#ky.

m` lb` a#wQ aw~q#kWm| anRv avAk j`wQ hQ@@w;QykO yyQ kQv h#k~@k~ rtt h` jnw`vt s#b#vQn~m a`qry krn~nkOty. e@s~ @n`vn~nkOt j`wQ hQ@@w;QykO yyQ kQv @n`h#k. mRhRN p` a#wQ pYX~n @w`~r` @b|r` vQs[` g#nWmt j`wQ hQ@@w;W @n`vn~nkO kQsQvQtk ktyRwO @n`kryQ. mm m@g~ rtt hqpw~@ln~m a`qry krmQ. vr\g awr @h`~ a`gm| awr @vnsk~ mt @n`m#w. vr\gv`qW kN~d`ym| h` n`n` a`gm| aqhn~nn~t mt ekqE vQr#q~{v`qQykOvw~ @n`m#w. vQr#q~{v`qQ@yk~ a#w~nm| e~ s^jRv @h`~ vkYv wYs~wv`qyt upk`rW vn kN~d`ym|vl pmNkQ.

m` kOd` k`l@y~ m`@g~ sgyn~ vR@N~ sQAhl vQn~nBR m`w`v@g~ s@h`~qry` h` g@m| sQtQ mRs~lQm| @v@Ln~q`@g~ pRw`yQ. m@g~ pQy` gOr#vr@ykQ. ohR a{&`pn a#m#wQ{Rry q#r$ db|lQv|. qhn`yk mhw`@g~ smk`lWnykOq @v|. g@m| p`s@l~ mRl~gOr# pqvQy l#bR m@g~ pQy` kL pLv#nQ @qy e@wk~ p`sl~vlt a#wOUvW@m| vrm @n`l#bR phw~ y#yQ sm|mw kOlvlt ayQwQ qr#@v`~ p`slt a#wOLw~ kr g#nWmy. epmNk~ @n`@v| ewOm` p`s@l~ sQtQ @qmL qr#vkOt sQAhl ig#n~vWm s[h` up`{Q{`rQ xQk;Rn~ vhn~@s~ @k@nkO@g~ @s~vyq lb` gw~@w~y. 1956 sQAhl pmNk~ sx` sm|mw vn~nt @pr sQyyt sQyyk~ @qmL qr#vn~ i@gn gw~ p`sl~vl e~ qr#vnt sQAhl x`;`v ig#n~vWm s[h` sQAhl gOr#vrykO b[v` g#nWm anQv`r\@yn~m @kr#NR @qykQ.

m` kOd` kl gw kL jWvQwy h` aw~q#kWm| nQs` @vnw~ j`wWn~ h` a`gm|vlt ayQwQ ay @k@r\ q~@v|Xyk~ n#wOv h#qW v#dW @l`kOvn~nt mt h#kQvQy. m@g~ kOd` k`l@y~ apQ sQylE @qn`m ek kOsvn~ @s`@h`yRrn~ @s~ jWvw~ vR@ymR. @my asn @k`tQ p`ln pY@q~X@y~ sQtQn @qmL qr#vn~t @my a#qhQy @n`h#kQ sQq~{Qyk~ vnR nQs#ky. @m| @qmL wr#N pQrQs~ a@nk~ @p@q@s~vl vn~@n~ kOmk~q#yQ @n`qnW. ovRn~ mRl~ jWvQw k`ly wOLm sQAhlykO q#k n#wQ awr in~ v#dQ@q@nk~ qEm|rQy kQy` v`hnyk~ a#wQ bv as` a#wQ nmRqE ey q#kWmt x`g&y @n`l#bR ay @vwQ. @m| ay@g~ sQwOvQlQ h` mns @k`wrm| qErt qR;Qw kr a#w~q#yQ kQv@h`w~ ovRhR sQAhlyn~ wmn~t k^^r an~qmQn~ slkn pQrQsk~ yyQ vQX~v`s krn awr wmn~@g~ ekm g#lvRm| k`ry` pYx`krn~ yyQ vQX~v`s krwQ.

a#w~@wn~m mm x`g&vn~w@yk~ @vmQ. sQAhl, @qmL, mRs~lQm| h` m#@l~ qr#vn~ smg ekt sQp~swr h#q$rW@m| avs~}`v mt l#bQNQ. epmNk~ @n`@vyQ e~ sQylEm j`wQvlt ayw~ gOr#vr#n~ yt@w~ p`dm| i@gn g#nW@m| x`g&yq m` @vw @vyQ. eb#vQn~ kOmn kN~d`ymkt @h`~ m` qk~vn a`qry h` @g_rvy ek h` sm`nv pvwW.

p`sl~ yq~qW sr\ @v`~l~tr\ o|l~ktQ nm#wQ @XY~;~Twm iAgYWsQ j`wQk kvQy` vQsQn~ lQyR kvQ@plk~ m@g~ mwkyt n#@M~. m@g~ mwky nQv#rqQ nm| em kvQ@p@L~ m`w^k`v vR@y~ sAgWwZykO@g~ avs`n n#BRr#v (oy# K~h q@ ey# K~Qe psbQkrsk:: @m| kvQ@pL nQs` m@g~ rtt a`qry krn~nt m` @y`mR vR@y~w~ m@g~ rt h` ehQ jnw`vt @s~vy kQrW@mhQl` o|n$m k#pkQrWmk~ krn~nt mt Xk~wQy l#bQNQ. @m| m@g~ upn~ rtyyQ @n`kQyn ay hRs~m gn~n` mL k[k~ y#yQ e~ kvQ @p@Ln~ kQy@v|.

kOd` k`l@y~qW evkt lAk`v nmQn~ h#[Qn~vR q#n~ XYW lAk`v ynR@vn~ h#[Qn~@vn @m| r@tQ s$m @k@nk~m m` qkQn~@n~ lAk` m`w`v@g~ qR qr#vn~ @lstyQ. mRhRN p`n~nt @vn qhskOw~ ekk~ anwOr# @n`wk` m@g~ rt @b|r`@gn p#rNQ XYW vQxSwQy yLQ k#[v` gn~nt m` wWrNy k@L~ eb#vQnQ. @k@rn @l~ v#gQrWm| n#v#w~vQy yRwO awr rt pRr`m s`my sm`q`ny a#wQvy yRwOyQ. sQAhl, @qmL, mRs~lQm| pmNk~ @n`v a@nkOw~ sRU j`wWn~t ayw~ jny`q s`m@yn~ sm`q`n@yn~, sm`n vrpYs`q xOk~wQ vQ[QmQn~ e@s~m ekQ@nk`t a`qry krn pQrQs~ bvt pw~vQy yRwOy. wr\jn @h`~ bly @yqW@mn~ ekmRwOkm a#wQkL @n`h#k. a@nk`@g~ a`qry qQn`gw h#k~@k~ a`qry h` anRkm|p`v a#wQ kr g#nW@mnQ. a#w~@wn~m sQylEm a`gm|vlQn~ ig#n~@vn~@n~q eyyQ. apQ sQylE@qn`m p`@h~ pRnr#w~pw~wQy vQX~v`s krmQ. aq mm qmQL j`wQkykO vn nmRqE ILM upw~vlqW sQAhl @h`~ mRs~lQm| j`wQkykO vWmt emt id a#w. eb#vQn~ ekQ@nk`t urNvW@m| h` sm`n`w~vykQn~ @w`rv s#lkW@m| kQsQm ayQwQyk~ n#w.

pvw~n` @w~r#mk~ n#wQ av`sn`vn~w yRq~{y nQs` n#wQvW a#wQ jWvQw pYm`Ny h#w~w$qhsk~ @h`~ asRqhsk~ @v|. vQsQ qhskt v#dQ qmQL k`n~w`vn~ v#n~qBRvn~ bvt pw~vW hm`ry. e@s~m v#n~qBRvn~ bvt pw~vW a#wQ sQAhl h` mRs~lQm| k`n~w`vn~ gNnq vQsQqhskt adR @n`@v|. qhs~ gNnk~ an`}b`vyt pw~vW a#wQ awr aw py n#wQvW a#wQ @k`ts~vl sAK&`vq iw` vQX`ly. @k`~tQ gNnk~ vtQn` r`j& h` pRq~glQk @q~pl vQn`X vW avs`ny. Itw~ vd` aq @gqrQn~ pQtvn rtv#sQy`t a`psR @gqr en~nt l#@b|q#yQ s#kyk~ q a#w. mhp`@r\ @h`~ bsykQn~ @h`~ qEm|rQykQn~ gmn~ kQrWm mh` anwOr#q`yk @qyk~ vW wQ@b|. @mm ww~w~vy q#nt avRr#qE 35 k~ wQs~@s~ pvwW.

s$m @qn`tm s$hQmkt pw~vQy h#kQ jWvQw gw kQrW@m| mg s#l@sn~@n~ nm| @mv#nQ @qyk~ a#wQ @n`@v|. yRq~{yt @g`qEr# vR s`m`jQkyn~ a#wQ pvRl~vl kQsQvkO qQgtm yRq~{y kL yRwO y#yQ @n`kQynR nQs#ky. m@g~ pvR@l~ hy@q@nk~ yRq~{yt @g`qEr# vW mQy gQy awr a@p~ pvRl~vl q#n~ v#n~[BRvn~ wQ@q@nkO h` an`} qr#vn~ gNn`vk~m sQtQwQ. m` iw` nQr\xWw aykO y#yQ smhr# kQywQ. wYs~wv`qyt vQr#q~{v m` s~}Qrv kYQy` krn~@n~ nQr\xWw kmt @n`v rt v#sQykO vX@yn~ m@g~ rtt itRvQy yRwO @s~vy itR kQrWmtyQ.

sQylE @qn`m p`@h~ @m| yRq~{y, pYwQ@k;~p krn awr aq aqm s`my uq`@v|yyQ a@p~k;` krmQ. s`my LM`kr g#nWm kL @n`h#kQ @qyk~ @n`@v|. a`N~dRv vQsQn~ kLyRwOv a#w~@w~ mRhRN p` a#wQ pYX~ny vQs[Wmt id slsn @y`~jn` iqQrQpw~ kQrWmyQ. j`w&n~wr pYj`vq a@p~ r@tQ vn @qy g#n sRprWk;`k`rWv blwQ. @k`tQ sAvQ{`ny whnm| kr a#wQ vQ@q~X rtvl~ a`N~dRv gn~n` v#dpQLQ@vL g#n unn~qE@vn~ bl`@p`@r`w~wO wb` sQtW. apt uqv| kQrWmt ovRnt h#kQvnR@y~ a`N~dR@v| v#dpQLQ@vL anRvmyQ. pYx`krn~@g~ j`wQk vWr qQny smhr yR@r`~pWy rtvl iw` uw~kr\;vw~ an~qmQn~ pvw~v` wQ@b|. a#w~@wn~m em rtvl~ @k`tQ sAvQ{`ny whnmt lk~ kL rtvl~ @vwQ. eyQn~ @pnW yn~@n~ kOmk~q? @k`tQ sAvQ{`nyt yLQ hQs osvn~nt avs~}`vk~ l#bWm @n`@v|q? j`wQk pYX~ny vQs[W@m|l` ek~sw~ lAk`vk~ wOL @pdrl~ p`ln wn~wYyk~ bQhQvQy yRwO yyQ e~ rtvl~ a@p~k;` kryQ. os~@l`~ h` @t`~kQ@y`~ s`m s`kc|C`vl pqnm ev#n~nkQ.

psRgQy avRr#qE 03 wQs~@s~ r@tQ pvw~n` @m| ww~w~vyn~ g#n a`gmQk n`ykyn~ @q~Xp`ln pk;vl n`ykyn~ h` a@nkOw~ vQq~vwOn~ smg s`kc|C` kr a#w~@wmQ. lAk`@v| pmNk~ @n`v yR@r`~p@y~ h` k#nd`@v|qWw~ bly @bqW@m| in~qWy kYmy pQLQgw yRwO yyQ aqhs~ krwQ. wvw~ smhr# @m`nm an~q@m| vQs[Emktvw~ k#mwQ n#w. @vnm r`j&yk~ pQhQtRvW@m| v#dpQLQ@vL @k`tQ sAvQ{`ny kQsQvQtk aw~@n`hrQnR nQs#ky. @k`tQ sAvQ{`n@y~ qEr\vl w#n r@tQ s`my uq`krlWmt rjy h#kQ vn~@n~ j`w&n~wr pYj`v anRmw krn vQs[Emk~ iqQrQpw~ kQrW@mn~ pmNyQ. ev#nQ vQs[Emk~ a#w~nm| ey pQLQgn~n` gmn~ @k`tQ sAvQ{`nyt bl kQrW@m| avX&w`vy j`w&n~wr pYj`vt l#@b|. @k`tQ sAvQ{`ny pYwQ@k;~p krn~@n~ nm| kLyRwO kOmk~q#yQ j`w&n~wr pYj`vt amRwO@vn~ kQv yRwO n#w.

j`wQk pYX~n vQs[W@m|l` mh` sAGrw~n@y~ up@qs~ lb` g#nWm s[h` awWw@y~ rjvr#n~ anRgmny kL v#dpQLQ@vLkQ. @m| pYX~n@yhQl` m` qrN aqhs~ mhQn~q r`jpk; m#wQwOm` @h`[Qn~ qnW. nQqhs~ qQn uw~sv@y~qW ewOm` m`@g~ nm s[hn~ kQrWm nQs` j`wQk pYX~ny vQs[Wm pQNQs m` iqQrQpw~ krn @y`~jn` slk` b#lWmt ewOm` sRq`nm| bv mt h#@M~. e@s~m e~ nQs` ik~mnQn~ s`my lb` g#nWmt a#wQ m@g~ pYyw~ny wv wvw~ Xk~wQmw~ @v|.

v`kr@y~qW jn`{QpwQwOm` ml~m`l`vk~ qm` pQLQgw~ hQn~qE pRjkwOm`t sQqEvR @qy ap kvRr#w~ qnQwQ. a#w~@wn~m @mv#nQ as`{`rN qrqVR k^^r sm`j pQrQskt @qmL jnw`v@g~ an`gwy pvr` qWm s`{`rN q#yQ rtv#sQ sQylE@qn`m wmn~@gn~m a#sQy yRwO pYX~nykQ.

mhn`yk mh`n`hQmQp`Nn~ vhn~@s~l`@gn~ pmNk~ @n`v r@tQ a@nkOw~ a`gmQk n`ykyn~@gn~q m` ay#q sQtQn~@n~ mhQn~q cQn~wnyt anRv @m| pYX~ny vQs[Wmt vh`m kYQy` krn @mn~ jn`{QpwQwOm`@gn~ il~l` sQtQn @lsyQ. mhQn~q cQn~wny s~vx`vQk yRk~wQ {r\my pqnm| kr sks~ kL ekk~ b#vQn~ ey kQsQvkOt pYwQ@k;~p kL @n`h#k. avs`n vX@yn~ adsQyvsk~ wQs~@s~ @m| pYX~ny nQs` qEkt pw~v sQtQn jnw`v sRKQw mRqQw kQrW@m| h#kQy`v a#wQ vQs[Emk~ jn`{QpwQwOm` iqQrQpw~ krNR a#w#yQ mm avAkv vQX~v`s krmQ.

 

 
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