{`wO@s~n rjR@g~ k@tQ sQgrtQtRvk~

@q~Xp`lnZ@ykO @s~m nU@vkO @l~Kk@ykO vR
tW.bW. ilAgrw~n@g~ mwk@yn~

XWY lAk` nQqhs~ pk;@y~ a`rm|xk s`m`jQk`vk h#tQyt s#lkQy h#kQ wmr` kOm`rQ ilAgrw~n mhw~mQy@g~ qy`br s~v`mQpRr#;y`Nn~ vR tW. bW. ilAgrw~nyn~ r@tQ @k`yQ kvRr#w~ qn~n` h[Enn @q~Xp`lnZ@ykQ. wOr#NR vQ@y~qW mRlQn~m a`q`ym| bqE lQpQkr#vkOv sQtQ ilAgrw~n mhw` k`lyw~ smgm n`t& kl`v, @l~Kn kl`v, cQwYpt kl`v, pwY kl`v v#nQ @k;~wY vlQn~q, hpn~kmk~ qk~v` an~wQ@m|qW @q~Xp`ln @k;~wYytq pQvQs nmk~ qQn`gw~ vg apQ qnQmR.

gm|bq @vq mhw~mykOt q`v mWt vsr 95 kt pmN @pr 1913 qW upw lq @h@wm g#mQ prQsr@y~ h#qENR v#dRNR @k@nkQ. srm, b#nQym @qkQn~ s#rsW gl~l$l~lw~, gl~ kSrw~, @h`~dQ @p`ww~ ar@gn is~@k`~@l gQ@y~ pyQn~my. mRlQn~m hwrlQy#q~q is~@k`~@lt @g`s~ @qvnRv gl@gqr sQAhl, iAgWYsQ is~@k`~@lt m`r#vW @wvnRv mhnRvr X`n~w @m|rQ vQqEh@ln~ a{&`pny lbq~qW XQ;&w~vyk~ qQn`@gn a#w. e~ anRv v#dQqEr a{&`pny mhnRvr X`n~w an~@w`~nQ vQqEh@lnQ.

e~ vkv`nR@v| LmyQn~ pmNk~ @n`v v#dQhQtQyn~q @b`@h`myk~ p`vhn~ p`vQc|cQ @n`kL awr ilAgrw~n sQsRv`q h#w#m|m @qk, wOn hwr p`sl~ @g`s~ a#w~@w~ hQs~ pyQn~my. X`n~w @m|rQ vQqEhlt yq~qW p`vhn~ pL[Qn~n, hRr#vR bvq q$n gn~nt a#w. a#s~.a#s~.sW. enm| @j&;~T p`TX`l` shwQk pwY vQx`gy @h`~ jW.sW.I. enm| a{&yn @p`qE shwQk pwY vQx`gy @h`~ ekl p#v#w~vR@N~ n#w. bQYw`n& ytw~ vQjQw p`lny yt@w~ ap rt p#v#wQ nQs` p`sl~ sQsRn~ s[h` pvw~vn lq~@q~ @k~m|bQYj~ jRnQyr\, @k~m|bQYj~ knQ;~T, @k~m|bQYj~ sWnQyr\, (@k~m|bQYjQ @j&;~T), ln~dn~ m#tQYk&R@l~;n~ (ln~dn~ vQX~vvQq&`lyt a#wOLw~ vW@m| vQx`gy) v#nQ vQx`gyn~y. ilAgrw~n g#tvry` e~ vQx`gvlQn~ smw~v a#ww~ vQx`g iAgWYsQ@yn~ smw~ vn~n pYm`qv a#wQ @s~ykQ.

sQvQl~ nQl{`rQykO bvt pw~vW@m| aqhsk~ p#vwQyq vys ik~mv` @g`s~ wQbRNR @hyQn~ sQvQl~ @s~v` vQx`gyt @pnW sQtQn~nt idk~ l#bW n#w.

rj@y~ lQpQkr# vQx`gyt @pnW sQtQnv` h#@rn~n kL h#kQ @vn ymk~ @n`wQbRNR nQs` mWt vsr 75 kt @pr 1933 qW em vQx`gyt @pnW sQt smw~v a`q`ym| bqE k`r\y`AX@y~ nQl{`rQykO vX@yn~ rj@y~ @s~vyt b#[W a#w.

ilAgrw~n mhw` gm| pY{`nQykO @mn~m avt gm| kWpykm g#mQyn~ awr nmk~ qQn` sQtQ @vq mhwkOtq q`v v#lQgd@p`l nm#wQ g@m| upw lq @k@nkQ. rj@y~ @s~vyt sm|bn~{ vRvq g#mQkm kQsQvQtk amwk @n`k@L~ g#mQ prQsr@y~ h#qENR v#dRNR @hyQnQ.

psRk@lk @q~Xp`lnyt pQvQsQyq @h@wm n`t& rcn@yhQ @mn~m rM p$@mhQq, gYn~} krN@yhQq qk;w`vyk~ q$k~vR @k@nkQ. h` h` pRr` kQy` rM p` a#w~@w~ "@q`@L`s~ mh r`wQYy" nm#wQ n`t&@y~y. "skOn~wl`, pYx`vwW, jl sn~nQy, an~{ nn~q`" v#nQ n`t& ohR awQn~ rcQw n`t& vQy. n`t& lQvWmt amwrv e~v`@yhQ rMp`q a#w.

agnRvr @s~vy kL`t psRv, s~}`n m`r#vk~ hq`@gn mhnRvrt @g`s~ a#wQ awr kl` @l`~lWn~ kWp @qnkO h` smg ek~v "mhnRvr srs~vwW n`t& sAgmy" nm#wQ kl` sAvQ{`ny pQhQtRv`@gn a#w~@w~ ehQqWy. "@m`kq mRql`lQ, sWgQrQ k`X&p" yn`qW n`t& kWpyk~ emgQn~ @v|qQk` gw kr a#w. "sWgQrQ k`X&p" n`t&@y~ {`wO@s~n rjR@g~ crQwyt pN @p`v` a#w~@w~q ilAgrw~n mhw`y.

{`wO@s~n rjwOmn~ hQtRv` ps~ g#sWm, n`t&@y~ avs`n jvnQk`v vR awr il a#@qn~n hQn` yn sQq~{Qyk~ ehQqW sQqEv a#w. nUv`@g~ hQs pmNk~ @p@nn a`k`ryt urhQs~ mtQtmt m#tQ bQw~wQyk~ sks` @v|qQk`@v| p@sk wb` wQbRNR awr {`wO@s~n crQwy rMp$mt nQymQwv wQbRNR ilAgrw~nyn~ @ssR nU nQLQyn~ lk l$s~wQ vnwOr# It mRv`vW sQtQ@y~ sQgrtQtRvk~ k@tQ gs` @gny. ovRn~ lk l$s~wQ vRv`yQn~ psR e~ vgk~ @n`q$n wkhnQykQn~ wQry es vR@yn~, alQ akrw#b|byk v#tW ohRt @q@l`~ rw~vQy. hnQk sQgrtQtRv p@skt vWsQ @k`t aq`L crQwy rM p$vw~ sQqEvR sQyl~l qEtR nrBn~@n`~ @k`k~ hVl` sQn`sRNh__

evk mhnRvr {r\mr`j vQqEhl~pwQv sQtQ dW. tW. @q~@v|n~qY mhw`q n`t&y b#lWmt p#mQN sQtQ@yn~ n`t&y @klvr vR psR e~ mhw` ilAgrw~n nUv` aslt p#mQN kW uph`s`w~mk kw`vq sQn` gn~vn~nkQ. vQqEhl~pwQvry` kW@v| "{`wO@s~n rj~jRr#@v`~ sQgrtQ @b`n vgk~, aq@n mA q$n gw~@w~" kQy`y___

@q~Xp`lnZykO vWmt @prw~, @q~Xp`lnZykOv sQtQyqWw~ e~ mhw` @l~Kn kl`vt blvw~ k#m#w~wk~ q$k~vR @k@nkQ. jnpQYy @ktQ kw` nvkw` @p`w~ rFsk~ lQy` a#wQ awr "oAcQl~l`v, h[hn, j`wk k`v&, rM mVl, vQlm|bWw, @qnRvr an~qry, aB yhU@v`~, wQlk h` wQlk`" yn`qW @p`w~ k#pW @p@nn e~v`y.

"sQUmQN, lAk`qWp" v#nQ pwYvlt lQpQq spy` a#wQ ilAgrw~nyn~, "kvt kn~q@r\" yn a`r$D nmQn~ lAk`qWpyt s#pyR@v| evk @q~Xp`lnZyn~@g~ adRlEhRVRkm|vlt uph`s`w~mk rsykQn~ yRwOv hWn~ nR@ln~ phr gsn @q~Xp`ln lQpQ @pLkQ.

hQtpR @sntQ mn~wWYvrykO @mn~m qk; a{Q nWwQZvrykOq vR a#s~. n@d|sn~ mhw` ilAgrw~n mhw`@g~ kOUpg hQwvwkOv sQtQ nQs` ohR@g~ r#kO@ln~ cQwYpt kl`vt aw gsn~ntq idk~ l#bW a#w. sQnm`s~ sm`gmt h[En~v` @qnR l#bW@mn~ psR hQn~qQ cQwYptyk iAgWYsQ pQtpwt anRv kw`v h` @qbs~q sQAh@ln~ lQy`qW a#wQ awr sQAhl sQnm`@v| a`rm|x@y~qWm v`@g~ pYqr\Xny @kr#NR "vrq k`@g~q" cQwYpty ehQ pYwQPlykQ. e~ mhw` em cQwYpt@y~ crQwyk~ rMp$ bvq q$n gn~nt a#w.

@q~Xp`lnyt ek~vW@mn~ anwOr#v, vQnykQn~, XQk;NykQn~ yRwOv p`r\lQ@m|n~wO@v| ktyRwO kL @q~Xp`lnZyn~ awr ilAgrw~n mhw` k#pW @p@nn @k@nkQ. ilAgrw~n mhw` @mn~m em mhw~mQyq p`r\lQ@m|n~wOvt @w~rW pw~vR vg kvRr#w~ qnQwQ.

e@wk~ bl@y~ sQtQ ek~sw~ j`wQk pk;y prqv` 1956 qW a#s~. db|lQv|. a`r\. dW. bN~d`rn`yk mhw`@g~ n`ykw~v@yn~ yRwO XWY lAk` nQqhs~ pk;y pY{`n mhjn ek~sw~ @prmRN bly al~l` gw~ avs~}`@v| ilAgrw~n mhw` km|kr# a#m#wQvry` vQy. r`j& @s~vkyn~ vQXY`m gQy psR ovRn~t vQXY`m v#tRpk~ hQmQ vn nmRw~ @p_q~glQk aAX@y~ @s~vkyn~t ev#nQ shnyk~ @n`p#vwQ @hyQn~ 1958 qW @s~vk ar\} s`{k armRql a`rm|x krn lq~@q~ e~ mhw` vQsQnQ. s#bvQn~m ey km|kr# pn~wQyt s#lsR imhw~ shnykQ. ar\} s`{ky ukst wb` idm| mQlqW g#nWmt nQv`s iqQkQrWm s[h` Ny mRql~ lb` g#nWmtq q$n~ idkd sls`qW a#w.

ilAgrw~n mhw` @v@L[ a#m#wQ pqvQ@y~q ktyRwO kL @k@nkQ. bN~d`rn`yk m#wQnQy@g~ k`l@y~qW @v@L[ a#m#wQvry`v sQtQn vQt s@w`s h` smRpk`ryq alE gs` n#gQtQ an~qm mwky. @k`tR@v| jn`{QpwQ mn~qQry axQys w#nk q$v#n~w s@w`sk~ wQbRNR awr nQwrm v`@g~ ey jny`@gn~ pQrW p#vwQNQ. s@w`s vQn`Xy kr` gQ@y~ rnQl~ vQkYmsQAh mhw` agm#wQv sQtQyqW rvW kr#N`n`yk mhw` @v@L[ a#m#wQkm krq~qW bv kvRr#w~ qnQwQ.

@l`~k a`h`r hQMykQn~ lAk`vq ar\bRqykt mRhRN qEn~ vkv`nRvk bN~d`rn`yk agm#wQnQy vg` sAgY`myk~ qQyw~ kL avs~}`@v| ilAgrw~n mhw` yt@w~ p#v#wQ r`j& @v@L[ nWwQgw sAs~}`@v| sx`pwQvry`v sQtQ @p@r\r` mhw`q vg`vt @y`mRvR an~qm mm @p_q~glQkvm qnQmQ. pRw~wl@m|, vn`wvQl~lE@v| e~ mhw`t ayw~v wQbRNR ak~kr 25 k k#l$ idmk~ eLQ@p@hLQ@k`t mz~@z`k~k`, @k@sl~, al, bwl, kv|pQ yn`qQy vg` kQrWmt ptn~ gw~@w~ m@g~w~, m@g~ mQwYykO@g~w~ sh@y`~gy a#wQvy.

XWYlnQp@y~ @j&;~T up sx`pwQvrykO vR ilAgrw~n mhw`t bN~d`rn`yk agm#wQwOmn~@g~ hqQsQ vQ@y`~@vn~ psR agm#wQ kmt pw~vn~n pv` idkdk~ wQbQNQ. ohR v`m`AXQk mw{`rQykO yyQ smhr#n~ kL hrs~ k#pQl~l nQs` ey v#LkW gQy bv q$n gn~nt a#w. XWYlnQpy pQhQtRv` g#nWm s[h` s#ksR k#[vW@m| lQpQyt aw~sn~ kL ay awrQn~ @knkO vR sW. pW. q sQl~v` mhw`t e~ wnwOr pYq`ny kQrWmt nQymQwv wQbRNq, @@vq& pYwQk`r s[h` @h@wm e~ vn vQt vQ@q~Xgwv sQtQ @hyQn~ ILM sRqEs~s` ilAgrw~n mhw` vQy. yt kW lQpQyt aw~sn~ w#bRvn~ awr ilAgrw~n mhw~mQyq sQtWm, It wOdR qEn~ ek~ @h~wOvkQ. an~wQ@m|qW agm#wQkmt pw~vR@y~ a{&`pn a#mwQv sQtQ vQjy`nn~q qhn`yk mhw`y.

jnhq h[Enn b#AkOvyQ h#[Qn~@vn mhjn b#AkOv @mn~m rk;N@y~ pYmRKy`yQ h#[Qn~@vn rk;N sAs~}`vq, pQhQtRvn lq~@q~ ilAgrw~n mhw`@g~ k`l@y~qWy. a#mrQk` h` bQYw`n& @wl~ sm`gm| jnswO kQrW@m|qW q ps~s b#lE@v| n#w.

mhnRvr, @h~v`h#t, @k`@L`n~n`v v#nQ a`snvlt vQtQn~ vQt wrg kL e~ mhw` rt, j`wQy, a`gmt, kl`vt @mn~m s`hQw&ytq, blgwO a#l~mk~ q$k~ vR@vkQ. @q~Xp`lnZyn~ kWp @q@nkOm gYn~}krN@yhQ @yqW a#wQ awr gYn~} v#dWm sAK&`vk~ rcn` kL @q~Xp`lnZy` ohRy.

p`r\lQ@m|n~wO@v|qW pv` @n`@h`bQn` @ls h#sQ@rn @q~Xnp`lnZyn~ sQtQn nmRw~ e~ mhw` kQsQ qQ@nk e@ls h#sQr#@N~ n#w. nQwrm sQtQ@y~ nQhwm`nW vQ{Qykt ahQAsk g#mQykO prQq~@qnQ.

p`r\lQ@m|n~wO rFs~vWm| nrBn~nt p`sl~ sQsRn~ p#mQN sQtQyqW smhr mn~wWYvr#n~ h#sQ@rn, kw`bs~ krn a`k`ry q$k w#wQ@gn hVn~nt pv` ptn~gw~ avs~}`q m` q$k a#wQ nmRw~ ilAgrw~n mhw` nm| kQsQ qQnk e@ls @n`h#sQr#NR vg i[Er` kQv h#kQy.

vQml~ vWr@s~kr

 

 
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