sAs~krNy : n`rq nQX~XAk

r#k~mNW @q~vW @q~X@y~ mh` kl`k`rQy

r#k~mNW @q~vQ nmQn~ kl` @l`v jygw~, @q~X@y~ mh` kl`k`rQy ap awrQn~ vQ@y`~ vW @mm ok~@w`~br\ 28 qQnt vsr wQhk~ spQQ@r\. ewOmQy a@p~ pR@r`~g`mW nQLQ rFjQN yQ: mh` g`yn XQl~pQnQy yQ. ewOmQy a@p~ kl` @l`v eklE kL pR@r`~g`mQ kl`k`rQy bv nv prpRrt @pn~v` qWmw~, em @pY_Dw~vy vw~mn~ wr#N k#L @vw @hLQ kQrWmw~ v#dQhQtQ s#m@g~ vgkWmkQ. e@mn~m r#k~mNW @q~vQy sQhQpw~ kQrWm k^w@v|qW j`wQyk yRwOkmkQ. ewOmQy s#mrWm| vs~ @q~XWy kl` sAvQ{`n @mvr vQ@X~; v#dsthn~ qQyw~ krn pRvw asn~nt l#bWm ap@g~ swOt t kr#NkQ.

vr\; 1915 jnv`rQ 15 qQn sRn~qr k[Ert rm|@b`d vwOy`@y~ qW @:. dW. d#nQyl~s~ h` @hln~ @r`~s~ qm|pwWn~t q`v upw lq @d|sQ r`sm|m` d#nQyl~s~ q#rQy sy @q@nkO@gn~ yRw~ s@h`~qr pQrQ@s~ @qv#n~n` vQy. v#dQmhl~ @s`@h`yRrQy @m|bl~ vQy., b`l @s`@h`yRr` @fd|rQk~ vQy., IlM @s`@h`yRrQy f~@l`~rn~s~ vQy., IlM @s`@h`yRrQy @hln~ nQln~wQ vR awr b`lm @s`@h`yRrQy s@r`~jQnW vQy. psR k@Lk d#nQyl~s~ mhw` rFkQy`v s[h` @k`LB t p#mQNQ b#vQn~ d#nQyl~s~ pvRl @m`rtRv pY@q~X@y~ pqQAcQ vQy.

@d|sQ d#nQyl~s~ q#rQy mRlQn~m sQp~ swr h#q$rWmt @m`rtRv @v|l~s~ kOmrQ vQqEhltw~, @qvnRv v#l~lvw~w X`n~w k~@ly`r\s~ vQqEhltw~, @wvnRv @qmt@g`d X`n~w m#wQv| vQqEhltw~ a#wOl~vQy. @m| awrQn~ @qmt@g`d X`n~w m#wQv| vQqEhl a#yt kl` @l`v r#vn~ @q`r vQvr kL s~}`ny vQy. @mm vQqEh@l~ qW a#y gW gymQn~ rMp$ @q~vqRw@y`~ nm| n`t&y a#@g~ rj gm@n~ mRl~ pQyvryQ. em n`t&y n#rBWmt p#mQNQ, ekl qk; n`t& XQl~pQ@ykO vR @v`~l~tr\ a@b|sQAh mhw` @m| q#rQy @g~ qk; g`yn h` rAgn vQl`Xyn~ q#k wmn~ @g~ r`m`yny n`t&@y~ sWw` @g~ crQwyt a#yv @w`~r`gwQ. @m@s~ p`sl~ sQsRvQyk~ v sQtQn aw@r\ qW m @d|sQ d#nQyl~s~ q#rQy @v|qQk`@v| qk; rAgn XQl~pQnQyk~ @ls q, g`yn XQl~pQnQyk~ @ls q, nr\wn XQl~pQnQyk~ @ls q wm shj pYwQx`v q#k~vRv`y. @mm r`m`yny n`t&y n#rBR ekL gY#m@f`~n~ yRg@y~ sAgWwZ@ykO vR ec|. db|. r$psQAh mhw` wm pYsQq~{ gWwy, sQrQ bRq~{gy` vQh`@r\ g`ynyt @m| wr#N XQl~pQnQy hvRl~ kr gw~@w~y. a#y gY#m@f`~n~ g`yQk`vk @ls @q`rt v#dQ@y~ em gWw@ynQ. @mhQqW a#y r#k~mNW @q~vW yn nmQn~ kl` @l`vt pQvQsQy`y. ik~bQwQ r#k~mNW @q~vQy ec|. em|. vW. (&sQ P~Qe#r.Q Dqsj#: gW w#tQ sm`g@mhQ nQw& g`yQk`vk @ls b[v` g#nRnR awr, em w#tQ qhyk~ s[h` ekvr gW g#yW@m| avs~}`v a#yt hQmQvQy. a#y mRl~ yRg@y~ g#yR gW awr @w~ p#n~ qQn qQn, XWY sr XWY mRNQ, @l`@v| qsw, s`r` sQrQnQ rm&`, pRr\@v| kL` vR p`@p~, r$@p~ qQvQmkOU q#lk~ @s~, @m| xv@y~ s#p n$ a`qW gWw iw` jnpQYy vQy.

@d|sQ r`sm|m` r#k~mNW @q~vW @ls nm| krnR l#b|@v| r$psQAh m`s~tr\ vQsQn#yQ mwyk~ a#ww~. v#dQ @q@nkO@g~ pQLQg#nWm nm| jyn~w vWr@s~kr mhw` r#k~mNW yn @k`ts q, q#nt ap awr sQtQn p#rNQm cQwYpt nUv` vn myQkl~ sn~ns~ lQyn@g~ mhw` @q~vW yn @k`ts q @y`q` r#k~mNW @q~vW yn n`m@yn~ a#y kl` @l`vt h[En~v` qEn~ bvyQ.

@v|qQk` n`t& rAgnytw~, gW g#yWmtw~ ekm avqQ@y~ pQvQsRnR r#k~mNW @q~vQy 1939 vs@r\ sQt @v|qQk` gw vR n`t& rFskm rMp$v`y. pW. pW. w`BRgl h` e~. em|. q sQl~v`@g~ m`y`vwW, dQk~ dys~ @g~ j`nkWhrNy, pW. pW. a`tQgl @g~ @r`~hQNW, vQX`k` vQq&`ly@y~ @v|qQk`gw vR sQrQsM@b`~, sW. e~. @f`n~@s~k` @g~ kWkr# bQrQ[, @m`rtR@v| @v|qQk`gw kL rAgl ap~pR a`qW n`t& rFsk~ m a#y @g~ rAgnyt @v|qQk`v vQy.

1940 vs@r\ qW mWgmR@v| mQnr\v` n`t& kN~d`ym jym`n~n pvR@l~ s@h`~qr pQrQs ek~v pQhQtRv` gn~n` lqW. bW. e~. db|. jym`n~n, vQlW jym`n~n h` os~tQn~ jym`n~n yn ay@g~ pY{`nw~v@yn~ kQYy`w~mk vR @mm mQnr\v` n`t& kN~d`y@m| @qvn nQr\m`ny vR kdvRnR @p`r`n~qEv n`t&@yhQ pY{`n crQwy vR rAjQnQ @g~ xSmQk`v r#k~mNW t pYq`ny vQy. ekL n`t& jvnQk` m`r#vn pY`n~wryn~ hW qW pYsQq~{ g`yn XQl~pQ@ykO @h`~ XQl~pQnQyk @y`qv` gWw g`yn` krvWm sm|pYq`yk~ vQy. mQnr\v` n`t&yn~ hQ qW ekL pYsQq~{ gY#m@f`~n~ g`yQk`vk vR r#k~mNW @q~vQy t em @s~vy p#vr#nQ. @m| wr#N XQl~pQnQy@g~ asm`n r$ spRv qEtR bW. e~. bd|. jym`n~nyn~ a#y wm n`t& nQr\m`nyn~ hW rAgnyt q`yk kr g#nWmt n#Nvw~ vQy. kdvRnR @p`@r`n~qE@v| rAjQnW @g~ crQwy r#k~mNW t l#bR@n~ e@s~ y. vQ@X~;@yn~ bW. e~. db|. jym`n~n @g~ sm`j k}` rFgw~ n`t& nQX~p`qn @b`@h`~@syQn~ jnpQYy vQy. r#k~mNW @q~vQy@g~ q`ykw~v@yn~ psR a#@g~ r$pyw~ rAgn vQl`Xyw~ @h~wO@vn~ @pY~k;ky` wvw~ em n`t&yn~ @vw a`kr\;Ny vQy.

mQnr\v` n`t& kN~d`y@m| ktyRwO krmQn~ sQtQ r#k~mQNW @q~vQy h` jym`n~n pvR@l~ s`m`jQk@ykO vR edW jym`n~n awr @pY~m sm|bn~{yk~ q @g`dn#gOnQ. @m| sm|bn~{yt @qp`r\Xv@y~ m pvRl~ vlQn~ pLvR@y~ q#dQ akm#w~wkQ. 1943 vs@r\ @h`r rh@s~m r#k~mNW : edW wr#N yRvl wnQ k#m#w~wt nWwQ@yn~ vQv`pw~ vQy.

in~qQy`@vn~ @mhQ p#mQNQ es~. em|. n`ygm| mhw` bW. e~. db|. jym`n~n mhw` smg a#wQkrgw~ gQvQsRmk~ anRv kdRvRnR @p`@r`n~qEv n`t&y cQwYptyk~ @ls nQpqvWmt mMp$qEnQ. ap r@tQ pY}m sQAhl cQwYpty nQX~p`qny s[h` mQnr\v` n`t& kN~d`ym vr\; 1946 qW in~qQy`v bl` n#v| n#A@g~y. e~ gmn @k`@l`m|bs~ a@mrQk`v @s`y` gQy gmn h` sm`n vR bv r#k~mNW @q~vQy p#vsRv`y. @m@s~ pY}m sQAhl cQwYpt@y~ pY}m pY{`n nQLQy vW@m| x`g&y r#k~mNWy l#bRv`y. @mm cQwYpt@y~ rAjnW nm#wQ pY{`n k`n~w` crQwy r#k~mNW @q~vQyw~, s#m|sn~ nm#wQ pY{`n pQrQmQ crQwy bW. e~. db|. jym`n~nw~ rMp$h. wmn~ rMp$ crQwyt wmn~@g~ hVQn~ m gW g#yW@m| v`sn`v q r#k~mNW @q~vQyt a#@g~ pLmR cQwYpt@yn~ m hQmQvQy. @mm cQwYpty a{&k;Ny @:. sQA x`rgw~ awr sAgWw a{&k;Ny n`r`yn~ ayQyr\ awQn~ sQqEvQy. @mhQ gW pq rcny n#sWgQy a@p~ @j&;~T kl`kr# hQyR@g`~ pYn`n~qE mhw` awQn~ itRvQy.

r#k~mNW @q~vQy @g~ g`yn` @qs vQmsR@mn~ b#lW@m| qW pYkt vn v#qgw~ m kr#N vn~@n~ uw~wr x`rwWy X`s~wWYy sAgWw@yhQ en @b`@h`~ g#BRr# r`gyn~ up@y`~gW @k`t @gn nQr\mQw gW wnR vl kQsQqE s~vrs~}`nyk~ @n`vrqv` s~pr\X kQrW@m| shj h#kQy`vk~ a#y swO vWmy. ev#nQ gWw g`yny s[h` vsr gNn`vk~ r`g (K&`l~) g`yn` ax&`s kQrWm avX& bv pQLQgw~ mwy vRvw~, ev#nQ X`s~wWYy sAgWw XQk;Nyk~ r#k~mNQy l#bR bvk~ v`r\w` @n`@v|. x`rwWy cQwYpt @k;~wY@y~ sQtQ mh` sAgWwZyn~ vR @n_X`q~ alQ, nr\hr\ cQwl~kr\ r`mcn~qY, hRs~n~l`l~ : xgw~r`m|, s:j`q~ hR@s~n~, gOl`m| @m`hmd|, scQn~ @q~v| br\mn~. mqn~ @m`~hn~, cQwYgOp~w~, Xn~kr\:jy~kQXn~ a`qWn~ vQsQn~ nQr\mQw m{Rr wnR vQX`l sAK&`vkt q, @m`hmd| @g_s~, es~. es~. @v|q`. a`r\. mRw~wOs`mQ, bW. es~. @p@r\r`, a`r\. e~. cn~qY@s~n a`qW sAgWwZyQn~ @g~ m{Rr wnR nQr\m`n rFskt q r#k~mNW @q~vQy iw` nQv#rqQ h` mn @m`~hnWy @ls wm kthV @m@hyvWm a`X~cr\yy kQ. e~ g`yn h#kQy`v q a#y @qvQyn~ @vwQn~ lq a`XQr\v`qyk~ m vQy. a#y kOd` kL ptn~ @q~vs~}`n@y~ gWwQk` g`yn@yhQ nQrwvWm g`yn kOslw`v pYgONvWmt lw~ ekm ax&`sy vR bv pmNk~ apQ qnQmR. psRk@lk kN~d`ym| sAgWwy ynR@vn~ h#[Qn~vRnR k#lQp~@s`~ a`@rhQ gWw s[h` q r#k~mNW @g~ hV m#n#vQn~ g#lpW gQ@y~y. cQwYpt wOL en @X`~kW jvnQk` s[h` gW g#yW@m| qW @X`~kW h#MWm| wWv|r vn a`k`ryt wm g`yn` iqQrQpw~ kQrW@m| awQvQXQ;~t h#kQy`vk~ r#k~mNQy swO vQy. e@s~ h#MWm| vlt anRgwvW@m| h#kQy`@vn~ yRw~ g`yn XQl~pWn~ vR@y~ x`rw@y~ mh` g`yk @m`hm|mq~ rfW sh a@p~ r#k~mNW @q~vQy pmNk#yQ p#vsWm| @vnw~ kQsQqE g`yn XQl~pQ@ykOt krn a@g_rvyk~ @n`vn~@n~y.

ekL n`t&yn~hW g#h#NR crQw rAgny q pQrQmQn~ vQsQn~ krn lqW. pYsQq~{ @v|qQk`@v| k`n~w`vn~ rMp$m @n`@h`bQn` kmk~ @ls s#L#kONR sm`j v`w`vrNykQ eq` vR@y~. eb#vQn~ v#dQhQtQ@y`~ wm qRvr#n~ t @v|qQk`v whnm| advQyk~ k@L`~y. sm`j@y~ mRl~b#s wQbR @mm mwy bQ[ qmmQn~ r#k~mNQ @q~vQy @v|qQk`v wm rjqhn krg#nW@mn~, kOslw` pQrQ a@nkOw~ k`n~w`vnt q rAgnyt pQvQsW@m| pQtRblyk~ r#k~mNW @q~vQy lb` qEn~n`y. eb#vQn~ ap a@tQ nQLQ prpRrk~ bQhQ vW@m| pY`rm|xy snQtRhn~ kL r#k~mNW @q~vQy nQs#kvm @q~X@y~ nQLQ rFjQn yQ. e@s~m v#dQm anRpY`p~wQk g`yn` h` rAgn XQl~pWn~ pQrQskt @k;~wYyt pQvQsWmt aw hQw qEn~ @j&;~ty` vR@y~ q mQnQs~km ihLQn~m agy kL r#k~mNW @q~vQy yQ. q#nt vsr h#t gNnkt @pr sQt arB`, ekvr rAgny h` g`yny yn @k;~wY @q@khQm ek@s~ qs~km| q#k~vR r#k~mNQy@g~ em @q~XWy v`r\w`v q @m@wk~ kQsQvkO bQ[@hl` @n`m#w. ehQ vR pY`wQh`r\yy vn~@n~ em @k;~wY pQLQb[v X`s~wWYy @h`~ kYm`NRkSl h#q$rWmk~ ewOmQy @n`l#b sQtWmyQ. a`sQy`@v| a@p~ kl`p@y~ cQwYpt rAgny h` g`yny yn @k;~wYyn~ @q@khQm smg`mWv nQy#lW@m| pR@r`~g`mQy` vR@y~ x`rw@y~ vQsR kOn~qn~l`l~ s#h#gl~ y: ILMt x`rw@y~ sR@@ry` y. a@p~ r#k~mNQ @q~vQy e~ awQn~ lAk` v`r\w`v pQhQtRvWy. @mm @k;~wYyn~ @q@khQqW m r#k~mNQy q#k~vR pYwQx`v asmsmy.

vr\; 1947 jnv`rQ 21 qQn pY}m sQAhl cQwYpty vR kdvRnR @p`@r`n~qEv mAgl qr\Xny @k`LB kQAs~lQ sQnm` h@l~ qW wQrgw vR awr, ehQ pY{`n amRw~w` vR@y~ gr# mh`m`n& dW. es~. @s~n`n`yk m#wQ[En~ y. e~ @ewQh`sQk sQq~{Q@yn~ psR r#k~mNW @q~vQy pQLQ@vlQn~ rMp$ cQwYpt awrt, kptQ a`rk;ky` (1948), v#rqEnR kOr#m`nm (1948), @pr@ln irNm (1949), hqQsQ vQnQX~cQy (1950), s#MvRnR pQLQwOr (1951), umwO vQX~v`sy (1952), k#l$h[ (1953), ayQr`AgnW (1954), mw@x~qy (1955), @prk@q`r# b$n` (1955), @q`s~wr (1956), sQrQylw` (1957), @@qv@y`~gy (1959), kvt an~q@r\ (1960), nLMn (1960), qs~@k`n~ (1962), mAglQk` (1963), @ht pYm`q v#dQyQ (1964), s#mQy` bQrQ[@g~ @qvQy`y (1964), L` qU (1965), swOt k[ElyQ (1965), sm|pw (1966), pQ@pn kOmRqE (1967), mgOl~ @p`~r#v (1967), yn cQwYpt q a#wOlw~ vQy. a#y avsn~ vrt pY{`n crQwyk~ rMp$@v| mgOl~ @p`~r#v cQwYpt@y~ y.

vr\; 1968 sQt r#k~mNW v#dQhQtQ crQw rAgnyt @y`mRvQy. 1968 qW abRq~qs~s k`@L~ nm| cQwYpt@y~ a#y@g~ pLmR v#dQhQtQ crQw nQr$pny hmR @v|. ew#n~ sQt wvw~ cQwYpt pNs~ gNnk rMp$ a#y em yRg @q@k~ qW m cQwYpt asR gNnkt rAgn@yn~ h` g`yn@yn~ q`ykvQy. e~ anRv 1947 vs@r\ sQt 1978 qk~v` wQs~ ek~ vsrk~ sQnm`@v| rF[W sQtQy`y. @m| awrwOr, 1960 qXk@y~ sQt a#y ylQw~ vrk~ @v|qQk` n`t& rAgnytw~, pYsAg @v|qQk`@v| gWw g`ynytw~ @y`mR@vmQn~, ml~ yhn`v, e@w@l`~, @vs~sn~wr, @vs~ mRhRNR a`qW n`t& vlt s`r\}k @ls rAgn q`ykw~vy s#pyRv`y. wm a`r\}Qky s~}`vr v wb`g#nW@m| atQ@yn~ a#y em yRg@y~ pYsAg @v|qQk`vt @y`mR vR bv q p#v@s~.

@m| awr r#k~mNW @q~vQy wm`@g~ p#rNQ gWw a#wOlw~ pY}m e~k pRq~gl gWw pYsAgyt ktyRwO sm|p`qn@yhQ @y@qn~nt vQy. s~vr\N gW pYsAgy @ls nm| kr, ey @k`LB k`n~w` vQq&`ly @y~ qW vr\; 1978 ok~@w`~br\ ms 29 qQn p#v#w~vWmt qQn nQymkr@gn wQbRnQ. ok~@w`~br\ 22 qQn m`wr uyn~vw~w kWYd`Agn@y~ p#v#w~vR X`n~w @w`~ms~ vQq&`lyWy s#N@kLQ xSmQ@y~ p#v#w~vR sAqr\Xnyt a#yt a#ryRm| l#bRnQ. e~ anRv m`wr uyn~vw~w sAqr\Xn@y~ qW q a$ edW jym`n~nyn~ smg gW g#yRv`y. psRq` aUym a`psR p#mQ@Nn awr edW jym`n~nyn~ @g~ vw~wl pQhQtQ nQvst @g`dv#qE@n~ @v@hs nQv`g#nWmtyQ. e@hw~ psR qQn p#v#w~vWmt nQymQw s~vr\N gW pYsAgyt @pr wm @qm`pQyn~ v#[ avsr g#nQ@m| atQ@yn~ r#k~mNW @q~vQy e@v@l~ m mWgmRv bl` y`mt rQy#qEr# qy` @p@r\r` mhw` smg pQtw~ vQy. j` a#l, wOd#l~l mAsn~qQ@y~ qW @k`LB @qst @v|g@yn~ {`vny vR @wl~ bvRsryk r#k~mNW rFgw~ v`hny g#tW@mn~ sQqEvR anwOrQn~ r#k~mNW @q~vQy brpwl @ls wOv`l l#bRv`y. vr\; 1978 ok~@w`~br\ m`s@y~ 28 qQn aUym hQr# kQrN pwQw@vq~qW, j`wQym km|p` krvmQn~, @hL@y~ mh nQLQ rFjQN q#@yn~ smRgw~w`y.

r#k~mNW @q~vQ nm| vR, @q~X@y~ pQnt phLvR mh` kl`k`rQy ap sQyl~ln~@g~ m hqvw~ wOL jWvw~vn~@n~ @y_vn sRr$pQNQyk @ls y. em pYwQr$py @vns~ vWmt id @n`wb`, ewOmQy @g~ XrWr @X`~x`v vQk^wQ vn @wk~ vys~gw vWmt @pr`wOv, r#k~mNW @q~vQy wm rjqhnt k#[v` g#nWm @qvQyn~ vhn~@s~@g~ k#m#w~w vRv`q#yQ v@rk sQ@w~. j`wQ@y~ mh` kl`k`rQy vR r#k~mNW @q~vQyt pQyvQy @n`h#kQ NykQn~ apQ s#@v`m @p@LmR. apQ a#yt sq`k`lQk @m`~k;y pwmR.

sRmwQp`l @s`~lAga`rc|cQ
pQAwOry:
e~. dW. rn~jQw~ kOm`r lQyR "yRgyk s~vr\N gWwy" r$p@l~Kny k^wQ@ynQ

 

 
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