@l`~k pYkt hqvw~ @q`s~wr@gn~ vQ@j~vWrt uNRsRm| sRb p#wOm| !

pRrn~ap~pR sh @g`n~g`@l~@g`d bN~d` n`ykw~vy qEn~ @mrt sRqE a{Qr`j& vQ@r`~{W s#b$ k#rFl~l sQqE vR@y~ 1848 qWy. iAgWYsQ a`N~dR@v| as`{`rN bqE ay kQrWm a`sn~n @h~wOv kr gnQmQn~ It vQr#q~{v qWp v&`p~wv iw` s`r\}kv qQyw~ @kr#NR em k#rFl~@l~qW sRqE @s`l~q`qE @vdQ phrQn~ k#rFl~@l~ vWr crQwyk~ vR cn~qY@j`~wQ hQmQ@y`~ qQvQ pQqRh. e~ qBRl~@l~ sQt m`w@l~t a` uq~@G`~;N @pLp`LQ@y~qWy. pRrn~ap~pR sh @g`n~g`@l~@g`d bN~d` sRq~qn~ vQsQn~ @vdQ wb` mr` qmn lqW. 1848 n~ psR @mrt iwQh`s@y~ vsr 123 k k`lyk~ gwv @g`s~ wQbQyqW mr\qnyt h` pWdnyt e@rhQv k#rFl~lk~ sQqE vR@y~ 1971 qWy. e~ 71 apQY@yl~ n#MQtWmyQ. 48 qW @mn~m 71 qWw~ mh` mr\qnyk~ qQyw~ vQNQ. 71 k#rFl~@l~ v#rFqQkr#vn~ y#yQ nm| kL ayt ndR p#v#r#@N~ hQr# @n`bsQn a{Qr`j&@y~ mh` r`jQnQy@g~ a`N~dRvt vQr#q~{v k#rFlQ g#sW@m| vrqt y#yQ kQymQnQ. e~ awWwyt blp`n prQqQ nWwQ sm|mw kL apr`{ yRk~wQ vQnQX~cy @k`mQsm hrh`y. aqw~ kp~prk~ sm`j a`r\}Qk @q~Xp`ln @g`@h`r#@v| gQlW sQtQn wOn~v#nQ @l`~k@y~ ap v#nQ rtvl yl~ @n`pQnR, e@hw~ wvmw~ qQn` gw yRwO y}`r\}yk~ bvt pw~v wQ@bn a{Qr`j&v`qyt h` nv ytw~vQjQwv`qyt e@rhQ stn~ p`T@y~ XWY l`AkWy nQr\m`Nkr#v` @r`~hN vQ@j~vWry. 1978 yR@r`~p` sAc`r@y~qW pYAX@y~ sQt p#mQ@Nn ohRt eAgln~wyt a#wOU vWm s[h` vWs` nQkOw~ @n`kQrWmt bQYw`n& a`N~dRv vg bl` @gn wQbR@N~ e~ "vrq" nQs` vQy h#kQy.

@mw#nqW vQ@j~vWr @vnR@vn~ iqQrQpw~ vn~@n~ hqvw~ @r`~g pQLQb[ @l`~k pYkt bQYw`n& j`wQk kWr\wQmw~ @@vq&vrykO vn ekl @k~m|bQYj~ srsvQ@y~ @@vq& pWT@y~ sQtQ @q`s~wr myQkl~ @pc| y. (^rg Psjy~#k C#ejy: ohR @l`v pLmR hqvw~ s#w~km kL "iAg~lQ;~" nm#wQ sRpYkt bQYw`n& j`wQk @@vq&vry`@g~ Xl& @@vq&vry` h#tQyt ktyRwO kL @@vq&vry` vQy. pYAX sAc`r@yn~ psR eAgln~wyt p#mQ@Nn vQ@j~vWr s[h` gQnQ pRpRr sh^q@y`~ @m| sQylE ktyRwO sAvQ{`ny @k`t wQbQN. @mhQqW @d`k~tr\ @d`k~tr\ @pc| bQYw`n& rjyt kr#NR iqQrQpw~ krn~@n~ wmn~@gn~ @@vq& up@qs~ pw` p#mQ@Nn vQ@j~vWrt vWs` lb` @qn @lsw~ ohRt pYwQk`r kQrWm s[h` wmn~t @vnw~ rtkt y` @n`h#kQ bvw~ kQymQnQ. vQ@j~vWrt sQy @q~Xp`ln jWvQwy wOLqW lAk`@v| {@n~;~vr p`lkyQn~@gn~ @b`@h`~ vQt @n`l#bRNR pYj`wn~wYv`qy eq` bQYw`n& a`N~dR@vn~ l#bQNQ. @r`~hN vQ@j~vWr mh` bQYw`n&yt a#wOU vQy.

mh` bQYw`n&yt p` w#bW@mn~ psR vQ@j~vWr mRlQn~m wmn~@gn~ vQy yRwO vQX`l yRwOkmk~ g#n kl~pn` k@L~y. e~ @m@wk~ wmn~ qEtR h` nRqEtR @s`yRrn~ pQrQsk@gn~ s#qEm| lw~ gQnQ pRpRr kN~d`ym hmRvWmyQ. eyQn~ @q@qnkO pmNk~ 1974:75 pmN vkv`nR@v|qW m#gsQn~ bn~{n`g`ryt p#mQN vQ@j~vWr mRNg#sW wQbQN. ek~ qhs~ nvsQy h#t gNn~vl sQt eAgln~wyt @g`s~ ehQ vQvQ{ rFkQy` krmQn~ jWvw~ vRNR v`m`AXQk h` pYgwQXWlW aqhs~ q#r$ ovRhR 1970 qXky mRlqW h` in~psR jvQ@p @k@rhQ n#BRr# vR ay vRh.

@p`~l~ pWrQs~ @g~ mwkyt anRv e~ vn vQt sW. ayQ. pYn`n~qE, @bn~ @p@r\r`, dyn~ pYn`n~qE, rAjQw~ @mn~dQs~, vQjy q l#n@r`~l~, ac` q l#n@r`~l~ a#wOU pQrQst amwrv em|. es~. a`b|qWn~ h` rQs~vQ krQm| yn mRs~lQm| j`wQkyn~ @q@q@nk~ q eAgln~w@y~ h#rd| s`p~pR sAkWr\N@y~ @s~vy krmQn~ ehQ v^w~wWy smQwQ @m@hyvR k~l#rn~s~ pWrQs~ q vX@yn~ @mm kN~d`ym pRUl~ @vmQn~ wQbQN.

@r`~hN vQ@j~vWr @m| pQrQs smg XWY lAk`@v| @b`@h`~ @q~Xp`ln kr#NR s`kc|C` k@L~y. 71 k#rFl~l pQLQb[vw~ ehQ s~vyA vQ@v|cn pQLQb[vw~ ehQqW s`kc|C` vQy. pk~;yt avX& j`w&n~wr ww~w~vy yR@r`~p@y~ @g`dng` g#nWm ohRt mhw~ @s~ avX&v wQbQN. smhr qQnvl ohR @v@hs @n`bl` iw` unn~qE@vn~ p`n~qr 3:4 pmN vn @wk~ @b`@h`~ ay smg s`kc|C` kL bv @p`~l~ pWrQs~ mhw` kQyyQ. @mm lQpQ m`l`@v| mRlQn~ s[hn~ kL a#n~tn~ b`lsQAhm| vQ@j~vWr hmRvWmt uw~s`h kQrW@m| sQq~{Qy sQqEvR@y~ q @m| qQnvly. @m| vn vQt gQnQ pRpRr sAvQ{`n@y~ s`m`jQkyn~t jvQ@p ln~dn~ X`K`v bvt pw~vW@m| k#m#w~wk~ a#wQ vW wQbQN.

"s@h`~qrvr#n~t mm e~k v`cQkv q#n~ @mw#nqW @p`@r`n~qE @vnv. nmRw~ mm e~k a@p~ pk~;@yn~ anRmw kr gw yRwOyQ..."

gQnQ pRpRr sAvQ{`ny jvQ@p ln~dn~ X`K`v bvt pw~ vn~@n~ em vs@r\qWm agqW (1978) lAk`@v| p#v#w~vRNR jvQ@p pLmR pk~; sm|@m|ln@y~qWy. ehQqW lynl~ @b`~p@g~ h` @r`~hN vQ@j~vWr@g~ @y`~jn` s~}Qrw~v@yn~ ey jvQ@p ln~dn~ X`K`v bvt pw~ vQy. sW. ayQ. pYn`n~qE ekl ln~dn@y~ sQt p#mQN em sm|@m|lny nQ@y`~jny kr wQbQN. e~ anRv jvQ@p pLmR vQ@q~X X`K`v bvt ey pw~ vQy.

gQnQ pRpRr @s`@h`yRrn~t sQy pLmR vgkWm h` yRwOkm itR krn vQ@j~vWr @d`k~tr\ @pc| hmRvWm @y`q` gn~@n~ in~ psR qQnky. e~ pQLQb[ @p`~l~ pWrQs~ sQy mwky avqQ k@L~y.

"mmyQ, vQjyyQ (vQjy q l#n@r`~l~) @r`~hN s@h`~qryvw~ k`@r@k~ qm`@gn @k~m|bQYj~ yRnQvr\sQtQ ekt anRbq~{ hqvw~ s`ynyt gQy`. ey @l`~k@y~ vQ@X~;@yn~m yR@r`~p@y~ vQX`l {nvw~ hqvw~ @r`~gWn~ @d`k~tr\ @pc| hmRvWm s[h` en s~}`nyk~. ohR h^q@y~ r#{Qrv`hQnW pq~{wQ@yhQ a`b`{ pQLQb[ @l`~pwl kWr\wQmw~ @@vq&vr@yk~. ayQrQ;~ j`wQk jWn~ nm#wQ vQjy@g @n`~n` e~ k`@l v#d k@L~ eAgln~w@y~ en~. tW. es~. (@hqQ pRhRNR p`sl) e@k~ k}Qk`c`r\yvrQyk~ h#tQyt. e~kw~ a@p~ v#dvlt phsRvk~ vRN`...

"@k`@h`m hrQ @r`~hN s@h`~qryyQ vQjyyQ @d`k~tr\ @pc|@g k`mryt gQy`. q#n~ mm eLQ@y s#tQ@y~ v`dQ @vl` in~nv`. ob vQX~v`s krnvq p#y @qkkt a`sn~n k`lyk~ gw vRN`...

"@@vq& up@qs~ gn~n gQy @r`~hN s@h`~qry` smM @d`k~tr\ @pc| @b`@h`~ @q~ kw` kr wQbRN`. @l`~k@y~ @q~Xp`lny g#n, @@vq& vQq&`v g#n... bn~{n`g`r jWvQwy g#n... @k`tQn~ m ohR @r`~hN s@h`~qry`t a`kr\;Ny vW wQbRN`. @r`~hN s@h`~qry`t gr# krn~nt @mn~ ohR eq` rwO tyQ ptQyk~ p#L[ gw~w`. mRql~ ay k@L~ n$. @r`~hl~ g`s~wOv pmNk~ @gvn~n y#yQ vQjyt kQy` wQbRN`. Xl&kr\myk~ kQrWm avX& @n`vn bv whvRr# @k`t p`vQc|cQ kL yRwO @b@hw~ lQy` qW wQbRN`. @r`~hN s@h`~qry`@g~ aw~@qk wqQn~ al~l`@gn ohR@g~ @q~Xp`ln jWvQwyt sRb p#wOv`...

"@m| a#qhQy @n`h#kQ @q~ sQqE vR@y~ in~ psRvyQ. @r`~hN n#vw eLQyt en~nt pRtR@vn~ n#gQtQn vQt @d`k~tr\ @pc| q n#gQtQt`... ohR smgm @k~m|bQYj~ @r`~hl iqQrQps nvw` wQ@bn a@p~ rQy LMt a`v`..."

"mm eq` q#k~k @q~ m@g~ upn~ r@tQ lAk`@v mQnQs~sRn~t @p`qE@v| q#n gn~n avRr#qE 30 kt vQwr ps~@s pw~wrykt kQyn pLmRv#nQ avs~}`vyQ @m|. ob vQX~v`s krnvq @d`k~tr\ @pc| a@p~ r}@y~ @q`r a#rl` @r`~hN s@h`~qry`t v`dQ @vn~n y#yQ awQn~ sAZ` kL`. ohR It ps~@s r}@y~ @q`r v#hRv`. apt iw` uNRsRm| smRg#nWmk~ qW mm r}y pN gn~v` hQmQn~ iqQrQyt a#@qn @wk~ ohR bl` sQtQy`. sQn`mRsR mRhRNQn~ @r`~hN s@h`~qry`t aw vn` a`c`r kL` 1956 sQt eAgln~w@y~ jWvw~ vn mt ey iw`m h#MWm|br v@g~m a#qhQy @n`h#kQ @qyk~... ekl m` swOv wQbRNR CKP 938 K aAk qrN d#tQsn~ @crQ vr\g@y~ e~ @m`~tr\ r}y wvmw~ eAgln~w@y~ wQ@ynv`...."

q#n~ qQgO klk~ mh` bQYw`n&@y~ v`sy krn 73 h#vQrQqQ @p`~l~ pWrQs~ ekl @k`LB a`nn~q vQq&`l@y~ sm|pRr\N@yn~m iAgWYsQ m`{&@yn~ a{&`pny l#bR@vkQ. iw` h#MWm|br a`qrykQn~ h` @g_rvykQn~ @r`~hN vQ@j~vWr pQLQb[ kQyn smhr avs~}`vlqW hqv@w~ g#BRr#m w#nQn~ ipQq pQtvn wm sQAhl vcn ohRt pYm`Nvw~ @n`vn wrm| vQy. wQyRNR b#l~mkQn~ q @ln~gwO sQnhvkQn~q ohR @b`@h`~ @q~ kQy` p$@v|y. @q~X sAc`r@yn~ q mQnQsRn~ a#sRr# kQrW@mn~ q @b`@h`~ a#w~q#kWm| spQrQ wvmw~ iw` s^jR @ls m`k~s~v`qW aqhs~ qrn iw` srl @m| mQnQs` wm jWvQw k`ly wOL @m@wk~ wmn~t hmRvW a#wQ vQXQ;~t crQwy @r`~hN vQ@j~vWr bv @n`p#kQlQv pL k@L~y. ey wm @p_q~glQk aqhs pmNk~ bv iw` nQhwm`nWv kW@v|y.

sQyl~ln~m wm` pQLQb[v pmNk~ sQwn sm`jyk~ wOL vQ@j~vWr sQyl~ln~ @mn~m sQyl~lk~ pQLQb[ nQrn~wr sQwQvQl~@ln~ psRvWm @mrt sm`jyt @w~r#m| gn~nt @n`h#kQ vRv` vn~nt pRUvn. ohRt wm mvRbQm pQLQb[ @p`qE armRNk~ mQs @p_q~glQk a@p~k~;` wQbR@N~ n#w. a{Q prQ@x`~jnv`qW gQjR bvq ng~n un~nwQk`my @mn~m ptR a`w~m`r\}k`mWw~vy q rjyn @mrt @q~Xp`ln sm`jy wOL vQ@j~vWr @p`qE jnw` a@p~k~;` y}`r\}yk~ bvt pw~ kQrW@m| awQXy qE;~kr sh @v@hskr gmnk nQmg~n vRvkO vQy.

"mm @m| kQyn @q~ ob k#m#wQ nm|, sRqEsR nm| pmNk~ lQyn~n. mRU yR@r`~p` sAc`ry pRr`m @r`~hN s@h`~qry` p`vQc|cQ kr wQbR@N~ adQyk~ vQwr pLl pRAcQ gmn~ ml~lk~, eAgln~wyt en vQtw~ ey k@r\ el~l` @gn a`v`. ehQ ek~ amwr kmQsyk~ sh aw&vX& a#[Em| kWpyk~ pmNyQ wQbR@N~... klQsm ohR h#[ @gn sQtQ ek pmNyQ. @d`k~tr\ @pc| hmRvWmt y$m s[h` apQ ohRt alEw~ kmQsyk~ qEn~@n~ b@ln~m v@g~. q#n~ @k~m|bQYj~ yRnQvr\sQtQ e@k~ k}Qk`c`r\yvr@yk~ h#tQyt v#d krn e~ k`@l eAgln~w@y~ em|. e~. up`{Qyt i@gn gnQmQn~ sQtQ a@p~ kN~d`y@m| gQh`n~ amrwOAg@g~ alEw~m k`kQ p`t kmQsyk~. ehQ @k`lry glv` sks~ kr @qn @ls @r`~hN s@h`~qry` a@pn~ il~l` sQtQy`. apQ vh`m ey sks~ kr qEn~n`. ohR il~lE@v| epmNyQ."

wvw~ @k`tsk~ lbn swQ@y~...

wQs~s @k`r@w`t

 
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