kOmn~wYN@y~ p`dm| : pWtr\ @knmn~
1 v#nQ @k`ts

sQrQm`@v`~ bN~d`rn`yk m#wQnQy@g~ a`N~dRv @prL` qm` blhw~k`r@yn~ r`j& bly p#h#r g#nWm pQNQs sn~nq~{ hmRq`vl sh @p`lQsQ@y~ uss~ nQl{`rWn~ vQsQn~ 1962 jnv`rQ ms qQyw~ kL r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNy sm|bn~{@yn~ pWtr\ @knmn~ p`r\lQ@m|n~wO@v|qW kL kw`v

@knmn~ mhw`,

sn~nq~{ hmRq`vl sh @p`lQsQ@y~ @k`ts~ mw pqnm| vR r`j& vQ@r`~{W pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNyk pYyw~ny m#VlWm s[h` @m| qk~v` @gn a#wQ pQyvryn~ sm|bn~{@yn~ @k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y @vnR@vn~ a`N~dRv @vw swOt pYk`X kr sQtWmt mm k#m#w~@wmQ. @mm pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYN@y~ sQylE sRlmRl avRs~s` mwO @k`t ey sm|pRr\N@yn~ m @p`dQ ptQtm|kr q#mWm s[h` gn~n` vR s$m kYQy`vktm ap@g~ pk;y a`{`r @k`t a#wQ awr iqQrQyt q em sh@y`~gy lb` @qnR a#w.

@mm vQv`q@y~qW @b`@h`~ n&`yn~ iqQrQpw~ vW wQ@b|. s#b$ sh mv`gw~ kr#NR mw @b`@h`~ nQgmnvlt eLB a#w. @b`@h`~ vQs~wr k`rN` pYm`Ny ik~mv` ymQn~ awQX@y`~k~wQ@yn~ qk~v` wQ@b|. s`m`n~wr prWk;N a{Qk`rQyk~ bvt pw~ vW ktyRwO kQrWmt @mm mn~wYW mN~dlyt h#kQ y#yQ sQwn~n` @s~ a#w#m| gr# mn~wYWvr# h#sRr#nh. e@hw~ k}`n`ykwOmnQ, @mm ww~w~v@y~ @k~n~qYWy kr#N @n` q#k sQtW@m| an~wr`yt ap hsR@v| y#yQ m` wOL a#wQ vR h#MWm @n`v#L#k~vQy h#kQ vQy. r`j& vQ@r`~{Q pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNyk~ kQrWmt q#r$ uw~s`hy s`r\}k vQnQ nm| ap@gn~ @b`@h`~ @q@nkO kQsQ@s~w~m @mhQ @n`sQtQnR a#w. p`r\lQ@m|n~wOvk~ @n`vnR a#w. vQv`qyk~ @n` p#v#w~@vnR a#w. m` @b`@h`~ @s~ s#k krn prQqQ ap @m| w`k~ ym| @hykQn~ jWvw~ vQnQ nm|, @mm vQv`qy apt p#v#w~vWmt sQqEvnR a#w~@w~ kOmn~wYNkr#vn~ ap sQr@k`t w#bWmt bl` sQtQ @p`@L`v yt yRq~@{`~pkrN gbd`@v| y.

e@hw~ vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`yky` e~ asl sQtQnR a#w yn~n kQvmn` @n`@v|. ohR ivryk~ kr q#mQy yRwO apYQyjnk pRq~glykO vX@yn~ pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNkr#vn~ @n`s#lkS bv p#h#qQlQy. yRq @p`lQs~ a`Z`q`ykw~vyk h` ek~sw~ j`wQk pk;y qQgtm p#vwQ@y~ nm| e~ awr @n`g#l@pn ym| @qyk~ q kOmn~wYNkr#@v`~ @n`qEth.

gOr# vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`ykwOm` a#wOLt p#mQN sQtWm g#n mm swOtR @vmQ. vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`yky`@g~ kw`vt mm iw` s#lkQl~@ln~ svn~ qEnQmQ. @b`@h`~ avs~}`vl ewOm` kw` krnR mm as` a#w~@wmQ.

e@hw~ I@y~ ewOm` kw` kL avs~}`@v|qW wrm| ewOm` klblvRw~, avRl~ sghw vRw~ @vnw~ avs~}`vk~ m` mWt @pr kQsQqE avs~}`vk q#k n#w. ewOm` vQsQn~ as`{`rN nWwQ ynR@vn~ h#[Qn~vR @qyt vQr#q~{v stn~ krn @ls jnw`v usQg#n~vR avs~}`@v| @h`~ "1962 jnv`rQ m`s@yn~ avsn~ vn 18 m`sy a#wOLw @mm a`N~dRv kd` v#@tnR a#w" ynR@vn~ an`v#kQ pL kL avs~}`@v|qW @h`~ kL vQX~v`s@yn~ yRw~ kQsQqE s#kykQn~ @w`rv ewOm` kL kw` h` @m| kw`v awr a#w@w~ @kwrm| nm| @vnsk~ q? ewOm` pL kL @q~Xp`ln an`v#kQvlQn~ a#w~w vWmt iw`mw~ a`sn~nyt a` ekm ek an`v#kQy @my yyQ kWmt mm k#m#w~@wmQ. vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`yky`t I@y~ kOmk~ sQqEvR@y~ q#yQ m` mvQwyt pw~ vR@y~ e~ nQs`y. ohRt ymk~ v#rqW gQ@y~ q?

gr# vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`ykwOm` sQy kw`@v|qW @gn h#r q#k~vR vQ@X~; kr#NR kQhQpyk~ g#n psRv kw` krn~@nmQ. e@hw~ ohR@g~ kw`@vhQ XOq~{ Ply vnR@y~ pYX~n avRl~ kQrQm sh r`j& vQ@r`~{W pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYN pYyw~nyk~ vQsQn~ uq`kr a#wQ ww~w~v@yhQ brpwlkm sRU @k`t w#kWmy.

wQbR@N~ ek~ kOmn~wYNyk~ q n#w~nm| It v#dQ@yn~ q e~ kQyn~@n~ "kOmn~wYNyk~ wOL kOmn~wYNyk~ q?" yn pYX~ny gr# vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`ykwOOm` mwO kLh. @mm kOmn~wYNy h` sm|bn~{v aw~adAgOvt @gn sQtQn pRq~glyn~@g~ nWw&`nRkSl ayQwQv`sQkm| pQLQb[ pYX~ny ewOm` mwO kL awr, 1953 hr\w`ly sm|bn~{@yn~ sQr x`ryt gnR l#bR gr# @k`~tQ@tQ mn~wYWwOm`t dd|lQ @s~n`n`yk mhw`@g~ a`N~dRv em ayQwWn~ ahQmQ kL bv m@g~ pk; sgy` vR @k`~tQ@tQ gr# mn~wYWwOm` (s~t#n~lQ wQlkrw~n mhw`) mwk~ kr qW@mn~ psRv vRvq, ewOm` qQgtm em pYX~ny mwO krmQn~ kw` kLh.

s#kkr#vn~ pQLQb[ prWk;N h` ovRn~@gn~ h`r` avRs~s` krn pYX~nkQrWm|vlqW e~ s~}`nvl sQtWmt am`w&vr#n~t a#wQ ayQwQy q gr# vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`ykwOm` pYX~n kLh. am`w&vr#n~ @mm prWk;N iqQrQ@y~ sQtWmt @h`~ It shx`gQvWmt @h`~ kQsQqE a`k`ryk vQr#q~{w~vyk~ mt @n`m#wQ bv kWmt mm k#m#w~@wmQ. @mm prWk;NvlqW qW kYQy`XWlW unn~qEvk~ ovRn~ @n` qk~vn~@n~ nm|, s#bvQn~m ey ovRn~@gn~ itRvQy yRwO yRwOkmk mRlQk h#MW@m| adRvk~ vX@yn~ mm slkmQ. bN~d`rn`yk mhw`@g~ G`wny pQLQb[ prWk;N p#v#wQ avs~}`@v|qW apQ @mm s~}`vry gw~@wmR.

dd|lQ @s~n`n`yk mhw`

gr# mn~wYWwOm` mt s~vl~p idk~ @qn @ls il~lmQ. am`w&vr#n~ ehQ sQtWm pQLQb[v mm kQsQ@s~w~m vQr#q~{ @n`vR@ymQ. pwY@yhQ m` pQLQ@gn a#wQ prQqQ, m` vQr#q~{ vR@y~ em kr#NR h`r` avRs~s` krn pYX~n kQrQm| gr# mRql~ am`w&wOm` 14 vQsQn~ krnR l#bWmty. m@g~ vQr#q~{w~vy eyyQ.

@knmn~ mhw`

kr#NR h`r` avRs~s` krn @mm pYX~n kQrWm| gr# mRql~ am`w&wOm` @h`~ @vnw~ kvr am`w&vrykO @h`~ vQsQn~ krnR l#bQmt m@g~ vQr#q~{w~vyk~ n#w. bN~d`rn`yk mhw`@g~ G`wny pQLQb[ prWk;Ny p#v#w~vR avs~}`@v|qW q ap @mm s~}`vrym gw~ bvw~, em mQnWm#r#mt vgkQv yRwO ay mwOkr g#nW@m| k`r\y@y~qW, sm|pRr\N@yn~ in~ ivw~v sQtWm g#n, ohRt mwk a#wQ prQqQ ekl agY`m`w&vry` vR qhn`yk mhw` ap pYsQq~{Q@y~ vQ@v|cny kL bvw~ sx`vt sQhQpw~ krqWmt mm k#m#w~@wmQ.

gr# vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`ykwOm` kw` k@L~, ap ktyRwO krn~@n~ sQrQw~ prQqQ sQqE@k@rn vrqk~ @h`~ sRU apr`{yk~ @h`~ sm|bn~{@yn~ yyQ sQw` y. ev#nQ kQsQvk~m @n`@v|. ap ktyRwO krn~@n~ @m| r@tQ jnw`vt vQr#q~{v kr a#wQ brpwl h` awQ qE;~t r`j& @qY`~hW kYQy`vk~ sm|bn~{@ynQ. ap ktyRwO krn~@n~ sn~nq~{ hmRq`vl sh @p`lQsQ@y~ ihL @X~YNQvl nQl{`rWn~ p#tlW sQtQn~n`vRq, It wvw~ kW @q@nkO p#tlW sQtQw~ q#yQ kQsQvkOw~ @n`qn~n` vRq, k`rN`vk~ sm|bn~{@ynQ. @mm ww~w~vyn~ wOL vQ@X~;@yn~ pY{`n s#kk`r pRq~glyn~@gn~ @k@nkO apr`{ prWk;N @qp`r\w@m|n~wO@v| pY{`nQy`@g~ s@h`~qrykO vn avs~}`vk prWk;Ny sm|pRr\N@yn~m apr`{ prWk;N @qp`r\w@m|n~wOvt pmNk~ x`r qW p#w~wkt vW sQtWm yRk~wQ shgw y#yQ kvrkOt @h`~ kQv h#kQq? apr`{ prWk;N @qp`r\w@m|n~wOv b`r nQ@y`~j& @p`lQs~pwQt sQylE s`{`rNy itRkQrWm s[h` ohR ev#nQ ww~w~vyt pw~ krlWm nQv#rqQq?

gr# vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`ykwOm` @mm pYX~n h` mWt sm`n vR pYX~n mwOkQrWm @w~r#m| gw h#k. e@hw~ ehQ XOq~{ pYwQPly vnR@y~ mwO vW a#wQ kr#NR avRl~ shgw ww~w~vykt pw~ @k`t r`j& vQ@r`~{W pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNyk~ kQrWm s[h` q#r$ pYyw~n@yn~ uq` vW a#wQ ww~w~v@yhQ brpwlkm sRU@k`t w#kWmy. vQXQ;~t @ls sQy kw`v a#rBR gr# ytQyn~@w`t mn~wYWwOm` (a`c`r\y a#n~. a#m|. @p@r\r`) q wm` @mm pYm`q @q`~;y wOLt v#tWmt id qW pY{`n pYX~n@yn~ ivwt y$m g#n m` kng`tR@vn~@n~ e~ nQs`y.

gr# qkONR @k`LB pLmRvn mn~wYWwOm` (@j~. a`r\. jyvr\{n mhw`) @g~ kw`v sm|bn~{@yn~ gw~ kl, mt kWmt a#wQ sQyl~l vnR@y~ sQrx`ryt @gn a#wQ kOmn~wYNkr#vn~@gn~ @k@nkO m` vn~@n~ nm|, m` @vnR@vn~ @pnW sQtWm s[h` m` @w`~r` gw yRwO pRq~gly` vn~@n~ gr# qkONR @k`LB pLmRvn mn~wYWwOm` bv y. ovRn~ @vnR@vn~ ewOm` vQXQ;~t @s~vyk~ itR kLh.

@j~. a`r\. jyvr\{n mhw`

m@g~ @s~vy lb` gw h#kQyQ. lb` gw h#kQyQ.

@knmn~ mhw`

pY{`n pYX~ny vnR@y~ pYwQg`mW r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNyk~ s#lsRm| kr wQbWmy. ehQ armRN vR@y~ a`N~dRv pmNk~ @n`v vm q vQn`X @k`t q#mWmy. kOmn~wYN@y~ @k`ts~ an`vrNy vW a#wQ awr, kOmn~wYNkr#vn~@gn~ smhrkO sQr x`ryt @gn a#w. r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYN@y~ sh ey kQrWmt bl` sQtQ p`pQ;~tyn~@g~ p#w~wt @gn ey sh ovRn~ a`rk;` kQrWmt @m| r@tQ sQylE pYwQg`mW sh ihL pn~wQvl bl@v|g vQvQ{`k`r@yn~ @pL g#@smQn~ sQtQwQ. ovRn~t a`{`r pQNQs j`w&n~wr pYwQg`mWw~vy q ovRn~t h#kQ @q~ krwQ.

@mm ww~w~vy wOL km|kr#vn~ @n`m#wQv @g`vWn~t ymk~ kL h#kQ q yn~n @h`~ @g`vWn~ @n`m#wQv km|kr#vn~t ymk~ kL h#kQ q yn~n @h`~ wr\k kQrW@mn~ aw~vn v`sQy kOmk~q? @mm mw @qkm krnR a#w~@w~ em mw iqQrQpw~ krn ay wnQ@k`t qm` ovRn~ am`r#@v| q#mWmy. @mm ww~w~vy wOL mQn~ mskt @pr ap awr vR mw@x~q g#n s`kc|C` kQrW@mn~ apt aw~vn v`sQy kOmk~q? n#w mhw`NnQ. mw@x~q kOmk~ vRvw~, vr\wm`n ww~w~vy wOL a`N~dRv h` vd` iqQrQ@y~ a#wQ pY{`n k`r\yy vn~@n~ ekt ek~ vW vQ@q~XWy h` @q~XWy p#LpqQym| vR ayQwQv`sQkm| xOk~wQ vQ[Qn~nn~@g~ @mm pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNy @p`dQptQm| kr q#mWmy.

k}`n`ykwOmnQ, krn~nt gQy r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNy hRqkl` vR sQq~{Qyk~ @n`@v|. smhr ay sQwn prQqQ ey hR@qk~ hmRq`@v| h` @p`lQsQ@y~ ihL @XY~NQvl nQl{`rWn~ pQrQsk~ vQsQn~ sQy ahAk`r blk`m@yn~ krn~nt gQy @q@yhQ pYwQPlyk~ q @n`@v|. ey 1956 sQt aw~pw~ kr gw~w` vR jygYhN @p`qE jnw`v@gn~ uqEr` g#nWm s[h` q, or@l`~sRv a`ps~st k#rkWm s[h` q, ytw~ vQjQw p`ln sm@y~ h` in~ psRv pQt pQtm blyt a` e.j`.p a`N~dR k`l@y~ p#v#wQ ww~w~vy kr` lAk`v n#vw a`psR @gn e~m s[h` q vQ@q~XWy h` @q~XWy pYwQg`mWw~vy @gn gQy qWr\G h` qE;~kr argl@y~ iw`mw~ @n`@b`~q` sQqE vR vQyr# vQk`XykQ.

@mm r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYN pYyw~ny nQn~qQw pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYN kwn~qr@y~ alEw~m prQc|@C~qy yQ. 1959 bN~d`rn`yk a`N~dRv bQ[ q#mWm, bN~d`rn`yk mhw`v pQLQkOl~ shgw @ls G`wny kr q#mWm, x`rk`r a`N~dR @qkk~ yt@w~ pYwQg`mWw~v@y~ ww~w~vy s~}`vrw~vyt @gn e~m s[h` @ktQ klk~ p#v#wQ as`r\}k pYyw~nyn~, @wl~ jnswOv, @p_q~glQk p`sl~ rjyt pvr` g#nWm sh 1960 avs`n x`g@y~qW h` 1961 mRl~ x`g@y~qW sQqE krn lq a@nkOw~ pYgwQXWlW kYQy`m`r\gyn~t vQr#q~{v argl kQrWm @mhQ mRl~ prQc|@C~qvlt ayw~ y.

@mm r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYN pYyw~nyn~ s`r\}k vQnQ nm|, sQqEvQy h#kQv wQbRNR @q~ kOmk~ q yn~n kOmn~wYN@y~ s~vx`vy h` kOmn~wYNkr#vn~@g~ crQw lk;N yn kr#NR @qkQn~m p#h#qQlQ @v|. @mm pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNkr#vn~@g~ ekm axQpY`yvR@y~ a`N~dRv vQn`X kr q#mWmy. ovRn~t vRvmn` vR@y~ v`m`AXQk v&`p`r@y~ @gL sQ[ qm` vQn`X kr q#mWmy. @m| sQyl~lktm ihLQn~ ovRn~@g~ r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYN@y~ ilk~ky el~l vR@y~ @m| r@tQ @p`qE jnw`vtm vQr#q~{vy. ap kQsQvkOw~ amwk @n`kL yRwO @qy eyyQ. @mm rt wOL yRq : @p`lQs~ p`lnyk~ pQhQtRvWmt @mm r`j& vQ@r`~{W pYwQg`mW kOmn~w~YNy smw~ vQnQ nmQ, Cn~qy p`vQc|cQ kQrW@m| h` wmn~ k#m#wQ a`N~dRvk~ pQhQtRv` g#nW@m| ovRn~ swO ayQwQy @p`qE jnw`vt ahQmQ vnR a#w. in~ aqhs~ vnR a#w~@w~ p`r\lQ@m|n~wO@v| h` pYj`wn~wYv`qW a`ywnvl avs`ny y. in~ aqhs~ vnR a#w~@w~ s~v`{Wn, s`mk`mW sh ytw~ vQjQw vQ@r`~{W vQ@q~X pYwQpw~wQ@y~ avs`ny sh sQy#@t`~ (gQnQ@k`n a`sQy` gQvQsRm| sAvQ{`ny 15) h` a@nkOw~ a{Qr`j&v`qW yRq sn~{`nyn~ wOLt lAk`v e~k`bq{ kQrWmy. in~ aqhs~ vnR a#w~@w~ mRU rtm

gAj` @m@hyRmk~

sQqEkrn a`k`ryt kYQy`w~mk @k@rn yRq h` @p`lQs~ wYs~wv`qW p`lnyk~ @mhQ pQhQtRvWmy. in~ aqhs~ vnR a#w~@w~ j`wQk x`;`vn~hQ h` sAs~k^wWn~ hQ avs`ny sh vQX~v@q~Xv`qy @h`~ gr# avQs~s`@v|l~l mn~wYWwOm` (dW. pW. a`r\. gONvr\{n mhw`) ewrm| vQcQwY @ls vQs~wr krnR lbn

wOp~phQ sAs~k^wQy

sQAh`sn`r$D kQrWmy. in~ aqhs~ vnR a#w~@w~ ek~sw~ h` j`wQk a{&`pn kYmyk~ @k@rhQ wb` a#wQ sQylE a@p~k;`vn~hQ avs`ny sh k@w`~lQk a`kYmNy h` @vnw~ pYwQg`mW p#LpqQym| vR ayQwQv`sQkm| xOk~wQ vQ[Qn~nn~ a{&`pny mw sQy a`{Qpw&y pwOr#vn ww~w~vykt n#vw rt a`psR @gn e~my. in~ aqhs~ vnR a#w~@w~ a`h`r shn`{`r, v^w~wWy smQwQ h` pYj`wn~wYv`qW ayQwQv`sQkm|vl avs`ny sh vQ@q~XWy h` @q~XQy sRr`kn~nn~@g~ l`x a`rk;` @k`t pRUl~ kr qWm s[h` sm`j @s~v` h` jnw`v@g~ jWvn ww~w~vy kp` h#rWmy.

1962 jnv`rQ 16 v#nQ qQn

@d|lQ nQvRs~

pwY@y~ pL vR sW. I. pW. jysRrQy mhw`@g~ kOpYsQq~{ lQpQyt gr# vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`ykwOm` sQy kw`@v|qW @y`mR vRh. gr# qkONR @k`LB pLmRvn mn~wYWwOm` (@j~. a`r\. jyvr\{n mhw`) @mm lQpQ@y~ a#w#m| @k`ts~ kQyvRh.

lAk`vt pYj`wn~wYv`qy nRsRqEsR yyQ sW. I. pW. jysRrQy mhw`t h#MW y$mt @h~wO vR kr#NR sx`vt mwk~ kr qWmt mt id @qn~n. mm ohR @m@s~ upRt` qk~vmQ..

"a`nyny krn shl~vlt @qnR lbn shn`{`ry adR kQrQmt @n`bQyv iqQrQpw~ vn~@n~ kvRq? @mrt nQpqvn vW vlt @qnR lbn shwQk mQl y}`r\}v`qW mtQtmk~ qk~v` phwt @gn e~m s[h` @n`bQyv iqQrQpw~ vn~@n~ kvRq? vr`@y~ km|kr# kN~d`ym|vlt ayw~ vQy yRwO km|kr#vn~@g~ sAK&`v adR krn @ls bl kr sQtQy h#k~@k~ k`tq? bs~ g`s~wO v#dQ krnR a#w~@w~ kvRq? wvqErtw~ pdQ v#dQvWm| nvw` q#mQy h#k~@k~? sm`j @s~v` wvw~ pRUl~ krn vQt

nvwQnR_

yyQ k$ gs` kQv h#k~@k~ k`tq?

@mm lQpQ@y~ sW. I. pW. jysRrQy mhw` gr# mRql~ am`w&wOm`t @h`[ kQy` a#w#yQ vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`yk s[hn~ k@L~y. blvw~ cQw~w sn~w`p@yn~ pYwQg`mW qQy@s~n @k@nkO @s`y` y$@m|qW a@nk~ s#mt pLmRv jysRrQy mhw` ahm|@bn~ ev#nQ @k@nkO @s`y` @gn a#w. e@hw~ s#bvQn~ m jysRrQy mhw`t krn~nt avX& @q~ smhrk~ bl@y~ sQtQ avs~}`@v|qW kL pRq~glykO sQtW. em pRq~gly` nm| gr# vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`ykwOm`y.

dd|lQ @s~n`n`yk mhw`

mm shn`{`r v#dQ k@LmQ.

@knmn~ mhw`

ob qEmrQy g`s~wO sh shl~ mQl v#dQ k@L~ n#q~q?

ddlQ @s~n`n`yk mhw`

n#h#.

@knmn~ mhwk`

ovRn~t a`Z`q`ykw~vyk~ avX& vR@y~ @mm armRN s[h` y. mRql~ am`w&vry` It @y`q` gw h#kQ vR ekm pRq~gly` @n`vWy. jysRrQy mhw` vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`yky` smM g#tR@n~ yyQ mm a`@r`~pny @n`krmQ. mhw`@NnQ,

rFs~vWm| v`ry aw~hQtRvWm obwOm` bl`@p`@r`w~wO vn~n`hRq? e@s~ asn~@n~ m` alEw~ kr#Nk~ @vw pQvQ@sn nQs`y. obwOm` qQgtm rFs~vWm| v`ry pvw~v`@gn yn~n`hR nm| qQgtm kw` kQrWmt m` sRq`nm| y.

k}`n`ykwOm`

obt qQgtm kw` kL h#kQy.

@knmn~ mhw`

@k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y sm|bn~{@yn~ gw~ kl, pYwQg`mW mQlQtrQ @p`lQs~ a`Z`q`ykw~vyk an~wr`y pQLQb[v ap @mm sx`vt sh rtt qQgQn~ qQgtm anwOr# hMv` a#w. pwl apkWr\wQmw~ pYwQg`mWn~t sn~nq~{ hmRq`vl, @p`lQsQ@y~ h` r`j& prQp`ln@y~ pY{`n wnwOr#vl qQgtm rF[W sQtWmt id h#rW@m| xy`nkkm g#n apQ aKN~dvm anwOr# h#MvWmR.

@q`s~wr n`gn`qn~

vQ@X~;@yn~ am`w& mN~dl rFs~vWmk~ p#v#w~@vn @hyQn~ rFs~vWm| v`ry p. v. 8.30 t aw~hQtRv` p. v. 9.15 t n#vw rFs~vWmt sx`v ekM vQy. eyt @p`qE@v| ekM vQy.

k}`n`ykwOm`

avX& ayt @g`s~ a`psR p#mQNQy h#k. kr#N`kr ob@g~ k}`v kr@gn yn~n.

@knmn~ mhw`,

m` klQn~ kW prQqQ, sn~nq~{ @s~v`vn~hQ, @p`lQsQ@yhQ h` r`j& prQp`ln@yhQ pY{`n wnwOr#vl qQgtm rF[W sQtWmt pwl apkWr\wQmw~ pYwQg`mQn~t idqW@m| xy`nkkm g#n @k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y qQgQn~ qQgtm anwOr# hMv` a#w. @mm pYwQg`mWn~ em s~}`nvlQn~ ivw~ @k`t e~ @vnRvt @q~X@pY~mW pYj`n~wYv`qyt h` pYgwQyt pk;p`wW vR pRq~glyn~ pw krn @ls apQ q#dQ @ls il~l` sQtQmR.

mQlQtrQ p`lnyk~ kr` vR @m| xy`nk a#qWy$m pQLQb[v gQy m`s@y~qWm @k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;@y~ ap rtt anwOr# h#MvR bv vd`w~ nQX~cQw @ls s[hn~ kQrWmt mm k#m#w~@wmQ. 1962 jnv`rQ ms 9 v#nQ qQn @mm sx`@v| kw` krmQn~ mm @m@s~ kW@vmQ.

"@m| rt wOL s~}Qrs`r mQlQtrQ a`N~dRvk~ s[h` kYm kYm@yn~ e@hw~ s~}Qr @lsm @v|qQk`v @g`dn#@gmQn~ wQ@bn bv, rtt q, @m| r@tQ pYgwQXWlW bl@v|gvlt q, @mm sx`vt sh a@nk~ p#w~@w~ gr# mn~wYWvr#n~t q, anwOr# a#MvWm avX& bv, @k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y @vnR@vn~ kQy` sQtQmt mm k#m#w~@wmQ. mhw`@NnQ, kQvyRwO @mm kr#N m` kQy` sQtQn~@n~ s#h#l~lE@vn~ @n`@v|." (nQl v`r\w`v 1962 jnv`rQ 9, 46 v#nQ @vUm, 103 v#nQ wWr#v)

em kw`v m` avsn~ k@L~ @m@s~y.

e@hw~ a`N~dR@v| gr# mn~wYWvr#n~t mt @m@s~ kQv h#k. ap sQrx`ryt gn~n` vRw~, ILM swQ@y~qW ob ap h` smM ek~vn~n` vRw~ ww~w~vyk~ uq` @n`krn~n_ q#n~ apQ @mm mQlQtrQ p`lny, @mm vr\{ny vn~n` vR mQlQtrQ a`{Qpw&y avsn~ kQrWmt vgbl` gnQmR. pY{`n pYX~ny eyyQ. rtt kLyRwO anwOr# h#MvWm eyyQ (nQl v`r\w`v) 1962 jnv`rQ 9, 46 v#nQ @vUm, 113 v#nQ wWr#v)

1962 jnv`rQ ms 9 v#nQ qQn m` @k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y @vnR@vn~ kW @qy eyyQ. krn~nt gQy r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNy a`rm|x kQrQmt qQn @qkkt pLmR, enm| jnv`rQ 25 v#nQ qQn mm n#vw @mm pYX~nyt pQvQsR@nmQ. em avs~}`@v| mm @m@s~ kW@vmQ. mm h#n~s`d| v`r\w`@vn~ upRt` qk~vmQ.

"@mm pYX~ny pQLQb[v gQy vr m` kw` kL avs~}`@v|qW @m| r@tQ pYj`wn~wYv`qW a`ywnvlt el~l vW a#wQ vr\{ny vn~n`vR mQlQtrQ wr\jny g#n mm anwOr# a#MvWmQ. @mm anwOr# vr\{ny vn~@n~ a`N~dR@v| pYwQpw~wQ@yhQ pYwQPlyk~ vX@ynQ. nQl v`r\w`v (1962 jnv`rQ 25, 46 v#nQ @vUm, 934 v#nQ wWr#v)

km|kr# pAwQy h` vm smM sn~{`ny kd` b#[ qm` mQlQtrQy smM nv sn~{`nyk~ @g`d n#gW@m| a`N~dR@v| pYwQpw~wQy mm qQgtm vQ@v|cny k@LmQ. mm wvqErtw~ @m@s~ kW@vmQ. mm q#n~ 934 v#nQ wr#@vn~ upRt` qk~vmQ.

"@my ov|nt kWmt mt id @qn~n. ob q#n~ mQwYykO LA kr gnW. ohR ob@g~ @bl~l kp` qmnR a#w. km|kr# pAwQy vQn`X kr q#mWm s[h` mQlQtrQy @y`q` g#nWmt ob@g~ smh@rk~ bl`@p`@r`w~wO @vwQ. obt upk`r kQrWm s[h` mQlQtrQy sQy uprQmy krnR a#w e@hw~ km|kr# pAwQy vQn`X kQrQmt ovRn~ smw~ vn~@n~ nm|, l#yQs~wO@v| ILMt in~@n~ oby. m` gQy vr kWv`k~ @mn~, ob @m| swQ@y~ ap sQr kSdRvt qmn~@n~ nm|, swQ kQhQpykt psR ob q ew#nt enR a#w. ob ew#nt @gn enR a#w~@w~ em mQlQtrQ hmRq` vQsQn~m y."

 

m` kOmn~wYNkr#vn~ adR@vn~ wk~@s~r# kL bv m` @mw#nt ek~ krn~nq? aw~ adAgOvt g#nWm| awr vQr`m k`lyk~ qWmtw~ ovRn~ sRq`nm|v sQtQ@y~ n#w. a`N~dRv sh vm yn @qpQrQsm aw~adAgOvt @gn sQr@k`t w#bWmt ovRn~ s#lsRm| kr wQbR@N~ ekm qv@s~y.

km|kr# pAwQy smM sn~{`ny @k@rhQ vR a`N~dR@v| v#rqQ pYwQpw~wQy sh ehQ anQtR vQp`kyk~ vX@yn~ sn~nq~{ hmRq` sh @p`lQsQy mw vQX~v`sy w#bWmt a`N~dRvt sQqEvWm kOmn~wYNkr#vn~ qQrQ g#n~vR @h~wOvlQn~ ekk~ vR bvt s#kyk~ n#w. m` @my kQyn~@n~ "mm obt e@s~ kW@vmQ" yn a#nRm| pq ar\}@yn~ @n`@v|. e~ s[h` pvwQn ww~w~vy iw`mw~ brpwly. m` @my kQyn~@n~ m$w sQqEvWm|vlQn~ ap sQyl~l nQv#rFqQ @q~Xp`ln nQgmnvlt eLBQy yRwO nQs`y.

@k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y vX@yn~ gw~ kL nRqEr# awWw@y~qW ap h` a`N~dRv awr kvr a`k`ryk mw@x~q wQbRNq, vr\wm`n@y~ kOmn @h`~ @vns~km| wQbQy h#kQ vRvq, @mm pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNy kOdRptQtm| kr v#rqQkr#vn~t qVRvm| qWm s[h` qrnR lbn sQylE pYyw~nyn~ s[h` a`N~dRvt ap@g~ pRr\N h` @n`@b[ENR sh@y`~gy sm|pRr\N@yn~ m lb`@qn bv p#h#qQlQv s[hn~ kQrWmt mm k#m#w~@wmQ.

ap pk;y sm|bn~{@yn~ gw~ kl, @mm wWrN`w~mk sn~{Qs~}`n@y~qW @m| r@tQ s~v`{Wnw~vy kd`kp~pl~ @k`t jnw`v@g~ pYj`wn~wYv`qW ayQwQv`sQkm| h` jygYhNyn~ vQn`X kQrWm ilk~k @k`t gw~ @mm pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNy pr`jy @k`t kOdRptQtm| kQrWm s[h` vR sms~w avX&w`v mRl~w#@nhQ l` nQk`yQk h` p`k;Qk mw@x~q @qv#nQ w#ntl` slkmQn~ sQylEm pYj`wn~wYv`qW sh pYgwQXWlW bl@v|g vh`m ek~sw~ vQy yRwO y#yQ apQ slkmR.

krn~nt gQy r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNy sh e~ h` sm|bn~{@yn~ a`N~dRv gw~ kYQy`m`r\g pQlQb[v @m| @m`@h`@w~ @mm sx`@vn~ pQtw pvwQn ww~w~vy gr# mn~wYWvr# qnQwQ. q^;~tQmy h` a@nkOw~ @k;~wYyn~hQ pYc`ryn~ wOL mRlQk pAwQ @pLg#sWmk~ h` pAwQ arglyk~ @m| @m`@h`@w~ qQyw~ @vmQn~ pvwW. vQ@X~;ykQn~ @w`rv, @m| r@tQ pYwQg`mW h` ihL pAwQvl bl@v|g sQyl~lm p`@h~ pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNy h` e~ sm|bn~{@yn~ sQrx`ryt @gn sQtQn ay a`rk;` kQrWm s[h` vQvQ{`k`r@yn~ e~k`bq~{ @vmQn~ sQtQwQ. ihL pAwQ @p`qE jnw`vt vQr#q~{v rAcR g#@smQn~ sQtQwQ. j`wQ@y~ iqQrQ gmn @vnR@vn~ @pnW sQtQn~n` vR sQyl~ln~t vQr#q~{v j`wQ@qY`~hW @k`ts~ rAcR g#@smQn~ sQtQwQ. pYwQg`mWhR pYgwQXWlWn~t vQ#q~{v rAcR g#@swQ.

sQrx`ryt @gn sQtQn @qY`~XW @k`ts~ j`wQk

vWryn~

h` j`wQ@y~

g#lvRm|k`ryn~

vX@yn~ h[En~v`qWmt @mm ihL pAwQvl pYwQg`mW bl@v|gvlQn~ smhrk~ uw~s`h krwQ. a@nk~ ay mRU sQq~{Qym @g`wn lq @b`r#vk~ yyQ ivw qmwQ. wvw~ ay vQv`wvm kQy` sQtQn~@n~ r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYN@y~ ekm v#rqQ @qy nm| ey s`r\}k @n`vWm yn~ny_ a@vk~ ay sQrx`ryt @gn sQtQn ayt pmRNRvn qVRvm| lQhQl~ krn @ls a`y`cn` krwQ

ov| mhw`@NnQ, ovRn~@g~ @qY`~hW armRNR s`r\}k vQnQ nm|, kQsQqE bRr#lk~ @n`@pn~vn ayt lQhQl~ vn @s~ ovRhR il~lwQ. sQylEm pYj`wn~wYv`qW ayQwQv`sQkm| vQn`X kr q#mWmt kOmn~wYNy kL ay@g~ v&vs~}`nRkSl ayQwQv`sQkm| g#n ovRhR v&k~w @ls kw` krwQ. 1953 dd|lQ @s~n`n`yk mhw`@g~ e.j`.p a`N~dRv vQsQn~ wm` sQrx`ryt gw~ avs~}`@v|qW wm` b#lWmt wm Z`wWn~t @h`~ nWwQZyn~t @h`~ id @n`qEn~ bv m@g~ pk; sgy` vn gr# @k`~tQ@tQ mn~wYWwOm` (s~t#n~lQ wQlkrw~n mhw`) vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`yky`t q#ntmw~ sQhQpw~ kr qW a#w.

dd|lQ @s~n`n`yk mhw`

hby`s~@k`~pRs~ a`Z`vk~ lb` gn~nt wQbRNQ.

s~t#n~lQ wQlkrw~n mhw`

nWwQZyn~t h` m@g~ Z`wWn~t pv` m` b#lWmt id @n`@qn prQqQ sQr@gqr ktyRwO pQLQ@yL krn @ls ob up@qs~ qW wQbR@N~y. e~ ayt m` b#lWmt id qEn~@n~ avsn~ swQy wOL pmNQ.

@knmn~ mhw`

m@g~ pk; sgy`@g~ pYk`Xy prQqQ swQ wOnk~ yn wOr# ohR b#lWmt nWwQZyn~t @h`~ Z`wWn~t id @n`l#bRNQ. e@hw~ ej`py @h`~ ugw~ r`j nWwQZyn~ @h`~ e~ avs~}`@v| It vQ@r`~{y p$ bvk~ ap as` n#w. ohR kL ekm vrq vR@y~ sw 25 sQt sw 70 qk~v` shl~ mQl v#dQ kQrWmt vQ@r`~{y q#k~vWm vRvq, m@g~ pk; sMy` vR @k`~tQ@tQ gr# mn~wYWwOm`t e~ avs~}`@v| slk` a#w~@w~ s`m`n& apr`{kr#vkOt slkn a`k`ryty. qN~dnWwQ sAgYhy yt@w~ ohR @vnw~ vrqk~ k@L~ nm| ohRt vQr#q~{v ndR pvrnR a#w. e@hw~ ohRt vQr#q~{v ndR p#v#r#@v| n#w. ohR kL ekm vrq eyyQ. e@hw~ ohRt slknR l#bR@y~ s`m`n& apr`{k`rykOt slkn a`k`ryty.

k`mryk sQr kr w#bR ohRt @qn lq~@q~ hQr@gqr iw`mw~ @g`@r`~sR nWrs a`h`ry. ohRt nQq` g#nWmt s#l#s~vR@y~ bQm elR p#qEr# kdm`l~lky. ap pk;@y~ qEsQm| gnn~ s`m`jQk@y`~ em irNmt @g`qEr# vRh. e@hw~ @mhQ sQtQn @h`~ nWwQ pRq~wk`l@y~ sQtQn mhwOn~@gn~ kQsQvkOw~ @h`~ mWt vQr#q~{w~vyk pYk`X k@L~ n#w. e@hw~ ovRn~@g~ imhw~ s#lkQl~l @y`mR vWm, vQ@X~; a`h`r l#@bn~n` vRq, vQ@X~; s#lkQlQ l#@bn~n` vRq, wm`@g~m a#[Em| h` smhr avs~}`vl mw~p#n~ q l#@bn~n` vR kOmn~wYNkr#vn~t pmNk~ sWm` vQy. sQrx`ryt gnR l#bR kOmn~wYNkr#vn~@gn~ smhrkOt mw~p#n~ s#pyWmt avX& vR@y~ mn~q#yQ @mhQ n#wQ gr# mRql~ am`w&wOm`@gn~ a#sWmt vRvmn`y. evRn~ h`m@w~ w#bQyyRwO yyQ mm @n`kQymQ. ob ovRn~t s#lkQy yRw~@w~ ej`p a`N~dRv @k`~tQ@tQ gr# mn~wYWwOm`t s#lkS a`k`ryt yyQ mm @n`kQymQ. s`m`n& sQrkr#vn~t slkn a`k`ryt ovRn~tw~ slkn~n. e~ s`m`n& pn~wQ@y~ sQrkr#vn~tw~ ob mw~p#n~ @qn~@n~q? @mm kOmn~wYNkr#vn~ wm` @b|bqEk@m| qEAs`{& @r`~g vlQn~ @p@ln bv pYk`X @k`t wQ@b|q?

ov| mhw`@NnQ, yRk~wQy yRk~wQy @n`vRvq, pAwQy pAwQym y. km|kr# pAwQyt ayRk~wQyk~ sQqE vR vQt ej`pyt @h`~ ugw~ r`j& nWwQZvr#n~t @h`~ nWwQy mwk~ vn~@n~ n#w. wmRn~@g~m pAwQ@y~ s`m`jQkyn~ r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNyk~ kQrWmt @g`s~ hsR vR vQt pmNk~ ovRn~t yRk~wQy h` nWw&`nRkSl ayQwQv`sQkm| mwk~ @v|. @b`@h`m @h`[yQ. @m| avs~}`@v|qWw~ nWwQytm q#dQ @ls pAwQ yRk~wQy itR vWmt id hrQn~n. km|kr# pAwQy h` jnw`v @mm r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNy s#lsRm| kL ayt kQyn~@n~ eyyQ.

k}`n`ykwOmnQ, @mm ww~w~vy wOL a`N~dRv q wmRn~@g~ ww~w~vy yLQ wk~@s~r# krnR a#w#yQ mm bl`@p`@r`w~wO @vmQ. vQ@q~XWy h` @q~XWy kOmn~wYNkr#vn~@g~ @mm kOmn~wYNyt vQr#q~{v stn~ @k`t, ey kOdRptQtm| kr q#mW@m| ekm s`{nWy m`r\gy vn~@n~ @p`qE jnw`v e~kr`XW @k`t, prqEvt lk~v a#wQ kr#NR pQLQb[v ovRn~ q#nRvw~ @k`t argly wOLt ovRn~ a#q g#nWm bv ovRn~t psk~ vWmt id @qn~n. pYwQg`mWw~vyt vQr#q~{v krn argl@y~qW sAvQ{`ny vR km|kr# pAwQy h` v@m| v&`p`ry ovRn~@g~ swOrn~ @n`v ovRn~@g~ mQwOrn~ h` sgyn~ bv ovRn~t av@b`~{ vWmt id hrQn~n. pYwQg`mWw~vyt vQr#q~{ argl@y~qW @k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y vQX~v`sq`ykvRw~, a{QX~T`nXWlWvRw~, aw~q#kWm| a#w~w`vRw~ mQwO@rk~ h` sg@ykQ.

apt vQr#q~{ p#w~@w~ sQtQn gr# mn~wYWvr#n~@gn~ @mm pYX~ny a#sWmt m` k#mwQy. krn~nt gQy r`j& vQ@r`~qW kOmn~wYNy uw~p`qny vR@y~ sn~nq~{ @s~v` sh @p`lQsQy wOLQnQ. krn~nt gQy em r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNy pQtRps sQtQn bl@v|g an`vrNy @k`t vQn`X kQrQm em bl@v|g vQsQn~ m sQqE kQrWm ob a#w~w vX@yn~ m bl`@p`@r`w~wO vn~n`hRq? nQl{`rWn~ awr h` Itw~ v#dQ@yn~ sn~nq~{ @s~v`vn~hQ h` @p`lQsQ@yhQ s`m`n& @k`ts~ awr avAk h` @q~X@pY~mW pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYNvlt h` r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNvl vQr#q~{ iw` hQwvw~ ay sQtQn bv apQ qnQmR. @k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y vX@yn~ gw~ kl, em pk;y @mm sQylEm pRq~glyn~ uss~ @k`t slkn awr, pYj`wn~wYv`qy h` jnw`vt pk;p`wW vWm g#n ovRn~ @vw sQy s~wOwQy pL kryQ. yRq hmRq`@v| h` @p`lQsQ@y~ ihL mtQt@m| nQl{`rWn~ 29 @qnkO sQr x`ryt g#nW@mn~ sn~nq~{ hmRq`vl sh @p`lQsQ@y~ q#nt sQtQn~n` vR @h`~ iqQrQ@y~qW sQtQy h#kQ vR sQyl~l ivw~ @k`t @n`m#wQ bv a`N~dRv qnW. e~ nQs` apQ @m@s~ kQymR. @mm kOmn~wYNyt vQr#q~{v stn~ @k`t ey vQn`X kr q#mWm s[h` ob@g~ sm|pRr\N vQX~v`sy sn~nq~{ hmRq` h` @p`lQsQy mw @n`wbn~n. pY{`n vX@yn~ jnw`v @k@rhQ, sAvQ{`ny vR km|kr# pAwQy @k@rhQ, a`N~dRv h` vm awr smgQy @k@rhQ vQX~v`sy wbn~n. sn~nq~{ @s~v`vn~ h` @p`lQsQy wOL sQtQn~n` vR @q~X@pY~mW h` hQwvw~ bl@v|g g#n kQvmn` @n`@v|. @mm @qY`~hW kOmn~wYNy s#b$ @ls vQn`X kr q#mQy h#k~@k~ @mm bl@v|gvl e~k`bq~{ykt pmNQ.

k}`n`ykwOmnQ, @gvW gQy @qswQy wOL sQqE vR sQqEvWm| lAk`@v| jnw`vt s#b$ @q~Xp`ln a{&`pnyk~ lb` qEn~@n~y. @k`mQyRnQs~tQ pk;y yLQ yLQw~ kL anwOr# a#MvWm| sw& bv in~ pY`@y`~gQkv whvRr# @k`t wQ@b|. sQyl~lt pLmR pYj`wn~wYv`qyt h` pYj`wn~wYv`qW a`ywnvlt wr\jny el~l vW a#w~@w~ v@mn~ @n`v qkS@Nn~ bv in~ @pn~nRm| @k`t a#w. @qvnRv, @k`mQyRnQs~tQ vQ@r`~{y sh km|kr# pAwQyt h`` v@m| v&`p`ryt vQr#q~{ argl@y~ stn~ p`Ty s#m vQtm, qkON vQsQn~ yRq : @p`lQs~ a`Z`q`ykw~vyk~ pQhQtRvWmt q#r$ pYyw~ny s`{`rNWykrNy kQrWm s[h` @y`q` gw~ bv in~ @pn~nRm| @k`t wQ@b|. es~. db|lQv|. a`r\. dW. bN~d`rn`yk mhw` G`wny kL avs~}`@v|qW q apQ e~ aw~q#kWmm l#bR@vmR. @mhQqW q, agY`m`w&wOm`@g~ G`wny sh in~ anwOr#v qk;QN`AXQk bl@v|g blyt pw~ kQrWm s[h` qrn lq pYyw~ny s`{`rNWykrNy kQrWm pQNQs @y`q` gn~n` lq~@q~, @k`mQyRnQs~tQv`qyt vQr#q~{v stn~ kQrW@m|

bA@k`@l`w~ stn~ p`Ty y. @mm aw~q#kWm|vlQn~ nQv#rqQ nQgmnyn~t eLBWm s[h` a`N~dRvt sh e~ pQtRps sQtQn bl@v|gvlt id @qn~n. @k`mQyRnQs~tQ vQ@r`~{W stn~ p`Tvl v&`j qQlQsWm pQtRps pYwQg`mW qk;QN`AXQk kOmn~wYNyk y}`r\}y s#MvW sQtQn bv kQsQ vQ@tkw~ ovRn~t amwk @n`vWmt id @qn~n.

pYwQg`mW r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNyk~ kQrWmt qrn lq vr\wm`n pYyw~ny pQtRps sQtQn bl@v|g an`vrNy @k`t vQn`Xkr q#mW@m| k`r\yy wOL apQ @kwrm| iqQrQyt @g`s~ sQtQmRq? @my a`N~dRv sh @m| r@tQ pYgwQXWlW bl@v|g sQw~ @y`mR kL yRwO pYX~nykQ. pRq~glyn~ vQsQnv@qnkO sQrx`ryt @gn a#w. n`vQk hmRq`@v| hQtpR aN@qn nQl{`rQ @r`yQs~ q m#l~ mhw` em hmRq`@vn~ p#n @g`s~ s#MvW sQtW. wvw~ @k@nkO vR kpQw~n` @p`lQyr\ sQy bQrQ[t lQpQyk~ lQy` wb` sQyqQvQ h`nQkr @gn a#w. krn~nt gQy kOmn~wYNyt wm`@g~ a#wQ sm|bn~{km| ohR em lQpQ@y~ s[hn~ kr wQ@b|. e@hw~ @mm k`rN`@vhQ avs`ny @mh yyQ a`N~dRvt @h`~ @mm sx`vt @h`~ vQX~v`s kL @n`h#k.

sQrx`ryt @gn a#wQ pRq~glyn~ @kwrm| uss~ wnwOr# qrmQn~ sQtQyq, armR@Nn~ h` axQpY`yyn~ ewrm| blk`mW vR r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYN pYyw~nyk al gQyw#n~, mRlgQy w#n~ vQ@q~XWy h` @q~XWy yn @q aAX@yhQm vd`w~ pRUl~ vR pr`syk avX&@yn~ m vQhQqW y` yRwOy. vQhQqW @g`s~ a#wQ @mm pYxvyn~ sQyl~l h`r` avRs~s` mcwO @k`t @hLQqrv| @k`t, vQn`Xkr qmn wOr# @m| r@tQ pYj`wn~wYv`qy h` pYgwQy s[h` vR sw~ v&`p`ry sRrk;Qw vQy @n`h#k.

@m| qk~v` mwO @k`t @gn a#wQ @q~ wrmk~ qErt krn~nt gQy r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYN@y~ vQ{`yk hs~wy y. @mm vQ{`yk hs~wy vRvq, sm|pRr\N@yn~ m adpn @k`t a#w#yQ apt s$hWmt pw~vQy @n`h#k. a`N~dRy bl@yn~ phkr qm` km|kr# pAwQy h` v`m`AXQk v&`p`ry sRnR vQsQnR @k`t a`Z`q`yk p`lnyk~ blyt @gn e~m armRNR @k`t gw~ r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNyk~ hR@qk~ vQ{`yk hs~wy mw pmNk~ vQX~v`sy @n`wbyQ. in~ vQhQqW gQy wvw~ awO h` X`K` It a#w. vQ@X~;@yn~ m @q~Xp`ln hs~wyk~ It wQbQy yRwOy.

sQrx`ryt @gn sQtQn mQnQsRn~ kWp@qnkO mm qnQmQ. ovRn~ sQyl~@l`~m awQqE;~t pYwQg`mQhR @vwQ. e@hw~ smhr ay vQs~wr krWmt uw~s`h krn prQqQ ovRhR @m`~dyn~ @n`@vwQ bly p#h#r h#rW@mn~ psR @q~Xp`ln blw whvRr# @k@rn ym| a`k`ryk a`ywnyk~ ik~mnQn~m s~}`pny @n`kL@h`w~ ovRn~ krn ekm @qy vn~@n~ sQvQl~ yRq~{ykt @q`r vQv^w kQrWm pmNk~ bv av@b`~{ kr g#nWmt wrm| pYm`Nvw~ bRq~{Qy ovRn~t wQ@b|. m{&s~} x`v@y~ pYwQpw~wQy aw~h#r qm` gQnQ@k`N a`sQy` gQvQsRm| sAvQ{`nyt b#[Wm @vnR@vn~ @k@rn anRgYhyk~ vX@yn~ a#mrQk` ek~sw~ jnpqy @h`~ a@nkOw~ a{Qr`j&v`qW blvwOn~ @h`~ m#qQhw~ vW ovRn~t a`{`r krnR a#w#yQ ovRn~ bl`@p`@r`w~wO@vn~ sQtQn~nt a#w. m#wQvrNvlqW pr`jyt pw~ vR pYwQg`mW pk;yk~ blyt pw~ kQrQmt ovRn~ bl`@p`@r`w~wOv sQtQn~nt a#w. ek~ pk;ykt vd` v#dQ pk; gNn`vkQn~ @w`~r` gnR l#bR pRq~glyn~@gn~ smn~vQw InQy`

j`wQk a`N~dRvk~

jnw`v v&`kSlw~vyt pw~ kQrQm s[h` @ktQ klkt pQhQtRvWmt ovRn~ bl`@p`@r`w~wO vn~nt a#w. pkQn~}`n@y~ sQqE vR @q~ @mhQ n#vw rMp$mt q v&vs~}`v aw~hQtRvWmt q agY`N~dRk`rv`y`@g~ p`lnyk~ pQhQtRvWmt q ovRn~ bl`@p`@r`w~wO@vn~ sQtQn~nt a#w. e@hw~ k`rNy vn~@n~, @mm armRNRvlQn~ ekk~ @h`~ kQhQpyk~ @h`~ sQyl~l @h`~ kOmn~wYNkr#vn~t wQbR@N~ q n#q~q yn~n @n`v mWt @q~Xp`ln hs~wyk~ @n`wQbQNQ nm|, @mm r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYNyt v#dQkl~ p#vwQy @n`h#kQ bvy. prWk;N ktyRwO vr\wm`n@y~ p#mQN a#wQ s~}`n@y~ nvw` q#mQmt idqQy @n`h#kQv a#w~@w~ e~ nQs`y. krn~nt gQy @mm r`j& vQ@r`~{W kOmn~wYN@y~ @q~Xp`ln aAg wOLt pRr\N @ls pY@v|X vW e~ pQLQb[ prWk;N ovRn~ vQsQn~ kL yRwOy. @mm kOmn~wYNy pQtRps sQtQn @q~Xp`ln, sm`j h` a`r\}Qk bl@v|g an`vrNy @k`t, @hLQqrv| @k`t, em bl@v|gvlQn~ h`nQyk~ sQqE @n`vn bvt vgbl` gw yRwOy.

bN~d`rn`yk mhw`@g~ G`wny pQLQb[ vAgOvlQn~ yRw~ apr`{ nWwQ kYQy`m`r\gy wvmw~ sm|pRr\N vW @n`m#w. ehQ pYwQPlyk~ vX@yn~ ohR@g~ G`wn@y~ @q~Xp`ln aAX pQLQb[v @s`y` b#lWmt @p`@r`n~qE vR @k`mQsmtt sQy v#d ktyRwO a#rBWmt @n`h#kQ vW wQ@b|.

smhr vQt sQy v`sn`v n#vw urg` b#lWm s[h` bN~d`rn`yk mhw`@g~ G`wny pQtRps sQtQ an`vrNy @n`vR bl@v|g mQn~ anRbly lbn~nt aw. r`j& vQ@r`~{W pYwQg`mW kOmn~wYN pYyn~wy vQ@q~XWy h` @q~XWy pYwQg`mWw~vy vQsQn~ sQy armRNR itRkr g#nWm s[h` kL es~. db|lQv|. a`r\. dW. bN~d`rn`yk mhw`@g~ G`wnytw~ vd` blk`mW vRq, qErqQg bl` qrn lq~q` vR q uw~s`hykQ. sQqE[$vW a#wQ @q~vl~ q#nt n#vwW a#wQ s~}`n@y~ nvwQn~nt idh#r bl` sQtQn @n`h#k~@k~ e~ nQs`y.

ovRn~@g~ @q~Xp`ln armRNR h` sm|bn~{w` pQLQb[ pYX~nyt eL@Bn vQt sQrx`ryt @gn a#wQ pRq~glyn~ mRUmnQn~ nQhVy. n#w~nm| awQXy @s`m|nsQn~ ap#h#qQlQ bv a`N~dR@v| pYk`X@yn~ mt q#kQy h#k. mhw~ prQXYmyk~ qr` @mm @q~Xp`ln sm|bn~{w` h`r` avRs~s` mwOkr g#nWm kr` @y`mR vWm wvqErtw~ @k@rn kvr @h`~ prWk;Nyk pY{`n armRN vQy yRw~@w~ e~ nQs`y.

am`w&vr#n~ @kLQn~ @n`kQy`, ktkw` mw pqnm| v&Ag@yn~ @q`s~ p#vrWm g#n vQr#q~{ pk;@y~ n`yky` sQy kw`@v|qW vQ@r`~{y q#k~vWy. ohR e@s~ kW vQt, 1953 hr\w`l~ vQv`q@y~

mwO sm|bn~{yQ

pWtr\ @knmn~ : @w`~r`gw~ kw` sh lQpQ (1947:1987) k^wQ@yn~
sQAhlyt prQvr\wny
k@L~
s$m| vQkYmn`yk

 

 

 

 
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