wtQtR @q@k~ bs~ lAk`vt mRlQn~m @gn~vR
hQtpR @s@ntQ sx`pwQ mh` @b_q~@{`~p`sk
XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs`

XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs`

@mm vs@r\ jnv`rQ 01 vn qQnt sQrQlk bs~ jnswOv sQqEvW adsQy vsrk~ spQ@rn lqW. e@hw~ @p_q~glQk aAXy yt@w~ p#v#wQ bs~ r} pYv`hn @s~vy lAk`@v| pY}m jnswO v&`p`ry q @v|. @mm bs~ jn swO@vn~ lAk`@v| pY{`nm bs~ r} sm`gm| @q`Lhk~ jnswOvt lk~vQnQ. e~v` nm| XYWmw~ sQrQl~q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ svRw~ @vs~tn~ bs~ r} sm`gm, @k`s~@g`d @nl~sn~ q a`@b|Yv| mhw`@g~ a#l~pQtQy bs~ r} sm`gm, IbtQ q sQl~v`@g~ IbtQ sQl~v` bs~ r} sm`gm, vQjyp`l @mn~dQs~ mhw`@g~ vQjy bs~ r} sm`gm, mRqlQqE @d|vQd| m#n~qQs~@g~ k#lNQv#lQ bs~ r} sm`gm, lQ@y`~ pYn`n~qE mhw`@g~ p`nqEr @m`~tr\ r} sm`gm, a#s~. q a#s~. jysQAh mhw`@g~ g`mQNW bs~ r} sm`gm, @sm@n~rQs~ ap~pRh`mQ@g~ hyQ@lvl~ bs~ r} sm`gm, ec|. a`r\. amrq`s mhw`@g~ r#hRNR bs~ r} sm`gm, @k~. bW. el~. @p@r\r` mhw`@g~ @k~. bW. el~. @p@r\r` bs~ r} sm`gm, bW. @j~. pYn`n~qE mhw`@g~ @k`LB omQnQ bs~ r} sm`gm sh @hn~rQ m$n~ mhw`@g~ m`@nl~ bs~ r} sm`gm @m@ls jnswO vR bs~ r} sm`gm|y.

@mm bs~ r} sm`gm| awr vQX`lwm h` pYsQq~{ bs~ sm`gm vR@y~ XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ svRw~ @vs~tn~ bs~ r} sm`gmyQ. mRlqW anRrpRr r#vn~v#lQ s$y @g`dn#gW@m|qW sQy nm wbn @ls g#mRNR kOmr#@gn~ il~l` sQtQy s~vr\Nm`lQ @qvMn@g~ nmt iw` smWp vR "s~vr\Np`lQ" yn nmQn~ sQy bs~ r} sm`gm arB` s~vr\N n`myk~ qQn`gw~ @mm bs~ sm`gm kwrgm sQt @k`LB qk~v`w~ @k`LB sQt kwrgm qk~v` bs~ r} {`vn@yhQ @y`qvn lq awr bs~ r}vl v#dm krn sQylE s~v`mWn~ vhn~@s~t @n`mQl@y~ gmn~ phsRv lb` qEn~ awr pQrQ@vn~ a{&`pny lbn hQmQvr#n~t @n`mQ@l~ gmn~ kQrWm s[h` avsr pwYyk~ q nQkOw~ kr shy qk~vn lqW. mWt vsr h#tkt pmN @prqW pQrQ@vn~ a{&`pny l#bR amrpRr mh` sAG sx`@v| sx`pwQ ag~gmh` pN~dQw @k`tR@g`d {m|m`v`s anR n`hQmQyn~ vhn~@s~t svRw~ @vs~tn~ bs~ r} sm`g@mn~ lb`qEn~ (@mm pQrQ@vn~ a{&`pnyt) avsr pw wvmw~ un~vhn~@s~@g~ @k_wOk lQpQ @l~Kn awr sRrFkQv a#w.

1956 qW sQqEvR mhjn ek~sw~ @prmRN a`N~dR@v| bs~ r} jnswOv ihw kW bs~ r} sm`gm|vlt h` a@nkOw~ pRAcQ bs~ r} sm`gm| v&`p`rQkyn~t @gn`@v| sRb pNQvQdyk~ @n`@v|. @mhQqW km|p`vt pw~ @n`vR svRw~ @vs~tn~ bs~ r} sm`g@m| pY{`n hQmQkr# XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` bs~ r} jnswO krn qQnt pY}m qQn@y~ sQylEm bs~ r} @s`~qv` pvQwY@k`t sQylEm bs~ r}vl @wl~ t#AkQ, in~{n vlQn~ pRrv` bs~ r}vl amwr @k`ts~ smM rjyt 1959 jnv`rQ 01 qQn prQw&`g krn lq~@q~ iw` nQr\@l`~xW jnhQwk`mW n`ykykO @lsy.

sQrQlk @q~Xp`ln vAX kw`@vn~ v&`p`rQk @l`~k@y~w~, @m| sQyl~ltm vd` @b_q~{ @l`~k@y~w~ amrNWy n`myk~ w#bR XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` qQvAgwvW 31 vsrk~ spRrn vQt lAk` bs~ sm`gm| jnswOvt It @prq` vsr pnhk~ s#mrWm sQqE@v|.

XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` upn~ @gyQm ek~sw~ j`wQk p`k~;Qk@ykQ. nmRw~ ewOmn~ kQsQvQ@tk ptR pk~; @q~Xp`ln@y~ @yqE@N~ n#w. eyt @h`[m shwQky qEn~@n~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ pYwQm`vk~ bLpQtQy ngr@y~ vQv^w krn vQt kw` kL anRr bN~d`rn`yk mhw`y. "XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` h#m vQtm @m| r@tQ r`j& n`ykyn~ smg sRhqv ktyRwO kL`. ap pRAcQ av{Q@y~ bLpQtQ@y~ mh` kp~pQN vlv|vt a`vm @mwOm`w~ hmR@vnv`. a@p~ @q~Xp`ln jWvQw s`r\}k kr gn~nt ewOm` @b`@h`~ up@qs~ qW wQ@bnv`. sQrQm` bN~d`rn`yk m#wQnQy @s@ntQ sx`v nQ@y`~jny krn vQt XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` ehQ sx`pwQ vX@yn~ m#wQNQyt qEn~ sh@y`~gy awQvQX`ly.

@m| @ls anRr bN~d`rn`yk mhw` eq` kw` k@L~ avAk @q~Xp`ln n`yk@yk~ pQLQb[vy. a#s~. db|lQv|. a`r\. dW. bN~d`rn`yk mhw` smg XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ vQ@X~; sm|bn~{w`vk~ wQbQNQ. bN~d`rn`yk rjy yt@w~ sr\ olQvr\ gONwQlk mhw` a`N~dRk`r {Rr@yn~ ivw~ kL@h`w~ em wnwOrt ILMt pw~vn~@n~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` yn r`vyk~ ekl @q~Xp`ln @k;~wY@y~ p#vwONQ. 1965 : 70 yRg@y~q lAk`@v| lkQsRr# pqvQy s[h` XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` pw~@vnR a#w#yQ vQX`l bl`@p`@r`w~wOvk~ wQbRNR awr e~ s[h` wvw~ ay a#s gs`@gn sQtQ @hyQn~ dd|lQ @s~n`n`yk mhw` arglykt m#qQ @n`vW vQlQym| @g`pl~lv mhw`v em {Rr@y~ wb`@gn sQtQn lqW.

sr\. @j`~n~ @k`wl`vl, sr\ nQkOls~ a`tQgl yn n`ykyn~ smM @k`LB r`jkWy vQq&`l@y~ ekm pn~wQ@y~ i@gn gw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` agm#wQ sr\ @j`~n~ @k`wl`vl mhw` ek~sw~ j`wQk pk;yt pY{`n k`r\y`lyk~ @g`d ngn~nt ktyRwO krn vQt e~ s[h` mRql~ vQX`l pYm`Nyk~ prQw&`g krn lq~@q~ XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` vQsQn~ bv p#v@sn awr e~ nQs`m sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` @k`wl`vl yn nm| @q@khQ mRl~ akOr#@gn "sQrQ@k`w" @ls em pk; mRls~}`ny nm| kL bvtq mwkyk~ pvwW.

hwLQ@h~ qXk@y~qW kUwr ngr sx`@v| sx`pwQ pqvQy q#r$ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` 1955 sQt @s@ntQ sx`vt pw~v psRv ehQ sx`pwQ pqvQy q q#r$ awr 1972 qW @s@ntQ sx`v a@h`~sQ krn wOr# ehQ s`m`jQkw~vy q#rWy. lAk` sm sm`j pk~;@y~ n`yk a`c`r\y. a#n~. a#m|. @p@r\r` mhw` smg q iw` kOUpgv a#sRr# kL @mwOm` pk; @b|qy, wm` LMt kQsQvQt k#[v` @n`gn~n` lqW. evkt lAk`@v| sQylEm pk;vl s`m`jQk pQrQs~ ewOm`@g~ bs~ @k`m|p#NQ h` tyr\ @k`m|p#NQvl @s~vy kL awr 50 qXk@y~ p#v#wQ v#d vr\jnvlqW @mm a`ywnvlt a` v`m`AXQk km|kr# n`ykyn~ em a`ywnvl sQtQn ayt v#d vr\jny krn @ls il~lR vQt ovRn~ pvs` a#w~@w~ ap kOmkt vr\jny krn~nq, apt sQylE @s~vk ayQwQv`sQkm| l#@bnv`" ynRyQ. @s~vk h`m|pRwO : smgQy e@ls rttm vQqh` p$ @mwOm` sQy k`ly, {ny v#dQpRr @yqE@v| @mr@tQ @b_q~{ sQq~{s~}`nvl qQyRNRv s[h`y. ehQ pY{`n sA@k~w @qkk~ ap r@tQ vQr`jm`nv p#vwQ pLmRv#n~n kwrgm kQrQ@v@hr @@cw& r`jy`y. g@d`l~ @g`dk~ bvt pw~v ntbRn~v gQy kQrQ@v@hr @g`dngn~nt ehQ @@cw& vr\{n smQwQ@y~ sx`pwQ pqvQy @gn ktyRwO kL @mwOm` kQrQ@v@hr @@cw& @g`dnAv` 1970 qW agm#wQ dd|lQ @s~n`n`yk h` vQpk; n`yQk` sQrQm` a`r\. dW. bN~d`rn`yk yn ay@g~ pY{`nw~v@yn~ {`wO nQ{n~ kQrWm h` @k`w~ p#L[vWm sQqEkr asq^; pQn~kmk~ sQqEkr gw~h. kwrgm qEtRg#mRNR vQXY`m X`l`v wnv` vn~qn`kr#vn~t phsRkm| lb` qEn~ awr evkt vQqElQbl a#m#wQ sW. pW. q sQl~v` mhw`t pvs` kwrgm ngryt vQqElQy lb` qEn~@n~y. kwrgm @q~v`ly LM sQt kQrQ@v@hr @wk~ m`r\gyt wm`@g~ @p_q~glQk vQyqmQn~ vQqElQeLQy lb` qEn~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` kwrgm @b_q~{ pY@b`~q@y~ amwkv gQy h` amwk kr a#wQ nQymRv`@N`~y. sMmQw~ @wrNQn~ vhn~@s~ sQrQm` @b`~{Qy lk~qQvt v#dmvW@mn~ psR eyQn~ htgw~ aAkOr wQs~ @qkQn~ ekk~ @r`~pNy kQrWm s[h` @y`q` gw~@w~ "mh jl~lQk gY`my" nm| pY@q~XyyQ. mh jl~lQk gm @k`@h~q#yQ y@mkO@gn~ aq a#sR@v`w~ ohR ey @n`qn~nv` a#w. @b`~{Q vAX@y~ e@s~ s[hn~ vR em gm psRv "@v|l`pRr" ynR@vn~ q nm|vQy. @m| nm| @qkQn~m awWw@y~ h[En~vn lq gm aq ngrykQ. e~ nrgy kUwry.

@q~Xp`ln iwQh`s@y~ kUwr h#mq`m v@m| a`snykQ. 1947 qW kUwr a`sny qQn`gw~ cm|lQ gONvr\{n mhw` 1977 qk~v` ehQ mn~wYWvry` vQy. kUwr ngry m#qQn~ v#tW a#wQ g`lE p`r mn~wWr# wOnkt @bq` w#nR@v| cmQlQ gONvr\{n mhw`y. eq` ohRt @b`@h`~ @qn` @q`s~ kW@v| @my @w~r#mk~ n#w v#dk~ @lsy. aq ehQ @w~r#m h#mtm q#@nnR a#w. e~ m`vw qQ@g~ envQt sR@q`~ sRqE p`tQn~ b#b@ln q`g#bk~ hrQwvr\N @b`~{Qr`jy`Nn~ qkQn, @p@nn, bln s#mt @gn @qn~@n~ s`n~w sRn~qr s#nsQl~lkQ. em q`g#b asl k[E g#t@y~ wQ@bn ewrm| vQX`l @n`vR @b`~{Qy eq` jl~lQk g@m| @n`@h`w~ aq kUwr @r`~pNy vR @b`~{QyyQ. h`s~kmkQn~ @mn~ vQn`X @n`vW @b|rW wQbRN em @b`~{Qyw~ rFk@gn k[E g#ty mw e~jn~w bAgl`@v| vQr`jm`nv sQtQ sRqE j`wQk qQs`pwQvry` plv` h#r p#rNQ kc|@c|rQy smM sQylE idm| pvr`@gn kUwr @b`qE bQm @g`dn#AvR@y~ XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`y.

@b`~{Q x`rk`r mN~dly pQhQtRv` ehQ sx`pwQ pqvQy qrmQn~ sQy qQvQ @qv#nQ@k`t kUwr pRj` nrgyk~ kL sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` aq mRU @b_q~{ @l`~kym qN nmn @mm pRN& xSmQy nQm#vR@y~y. @mwOm` eAgln~w@y~ ln~dn~ nRvr ln~dn~ @b_q~{ vQh`ry @g`dngn~nt qEn~ sh`y awQ vQX`ly. anRr`{pRr @j~wvn`r`m q`g#b pQLQskr kQrW@m| aqhsk~q @mwOm`t wQbW a#w. hRNRpQtQ@y~ gAg`r`my alEw~gm kn~@q vQh`ry, kUv`@m`~qr {r\mq~vWp @y`~g`XYmy sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ @n`msRr# a`{`r, upk`r l#bN @v@hr vQh`rs~}`ny.

kUwr mh` vQq&`ly, kUwr b`lQk` vQq&`ly, vwO@r\gm a@b|sQAh b`lQk` vQq&`ly @g`dn#AvW@mhQl` sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` nQr\m`w^w~vy q#rWy. Lm` nQv`s, v#dQhQtQ nQv`s q pQhQtRv` asrNynt uqv| kL @mwOm` wm`@g~ v&`p`r jnswO @vq~qW e~v`t X`p @n`kr nv v&`p`r a`rm|x kLh.

tyr\ n#vw pQrvWm, tyr\ nQ;~p`qny kQrWm, @m`~tr\ r} @gn~vWm ewOm` a`rm|x kL v&`p`ryn~y. @mv#nQ v&`p`r a`rm|x krn vQt sQAhl sQrQw~ vQrQw~ anRv n#k#w~ b#lWm gN pQhQtRv` sRqEsR nm| w#bWmt sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` av{`ny @y`mR kr a#w. ekl ap r@tQ sQtQ @j&`wQr\ vQX`rqykO vR vwO@r\gm @s`~m`lAk`r m`hQmQ sQrQm` bN~d`rn`yk m#wQnQy@g~q n#kw~ ktyRwOvl @yqEn hQmQ nmkQ. ap r@tQ cQwYptvlt q nm| w#nR e~ hQmQ@y`~ qQnk~ hmRvR sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` wm` axQnv@yn~ arBn XWwkrN @gn~vW@m| v&`p`ry em XWwkrn nm| kQrWmt sRqEsR nmk~ sks` @qn @ls il~lRvQt "mhw~wy@g nm sQrQl~ nQs` XWwkrN sQsQl~" kQy` h[En~vn @ls il~l` a#w. @m@ls @q~XWy nm|vlQn~ v&`p`r nQr\m`Ny kQrWm pQLQb[ rsvw~ k}` a#wQ bv p#rNQ ay kQynR ap as` a#w. @mwOm`@g~ s@h`~qrykO vR@y~ kWr\wQmw~ sm`j @s~vkykO vR a{QnWwQZ vW. tW. q @s`yQs` mhw`y. 1960 qW ek~sw~ j`wQk pk~;@yn~ bLpQtQy m#wQvrN @k`tQT`syt wrg kr p#rqEn vW. tW. q @s`sQy` mhw` sQy s@h`~qry`@g~ @svn#l~l @mn~ LMQn~ sQt em ktyRwOvlt qQrQ qEn~@n~y. XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ a#v$@mn~ psR kUwr @b_q~{ pRnr#q@y~ nQr\m`w^vry` vR@y~ q vW. tW. q @s`yQs` mhw`y.

sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ b$NnRvn~ vR kQAs~lQ vQkYmsQAh mhw` q k`lyk~ kUwr ngr`{QpwQ {Rry @hbvWm kUwr ngr sx` iwQh`s@y~ v`r\w`vk~ vn~@n~ m`m` sh b$N` q ngr`{QpwQ vR ngry sx`vk~ @ls g#@nn nQs`y. sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw` @g~ wvw~ b$NnR @k@nk~ vR @;lQ vQkYmsQAh mhw` @k`LB wr#N @b_q~{ sAgm@y~ sx`pwQ {Rry usRl` a#w. sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ Z`wQ pRwNRvr#n~ vn a{QnWwQZ ajQw~ q @s`yQs` mhw` wQlk~ q @s`yQs` yn mhw~vr#n~ @q~Xp`ln @l`~kyt @n`p#mQNQyq sQy mhp~p` @mn~ v&`p`rQk @l`~k@y~q @b_q~{ sm`j @s~v` @m@hv@r\q nQymRvr#n~ @ls kUwr @b`~ smQ[En~ mRl~ kr@gn sQqEkrn @s~vy pYXAsnWyyQ.

sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ @s~vy agy kL eAgn~w@y~ mh rFjQn vQsQn~ "nyQtQ" n`myk~ q sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`t pQQrQnmn~nt @yqENQ. jWvQw@y~ avs`n k`r\wO@v|qW wm` jWvw~vn nQv`syq v#dQhQtQ nQv`syk~ s[h` pQrQn#mR @mm k^whs~w @b_q~{ @q~Xp`ln n`yky` sQy @n~v`sQky @ls sAc`rk @h`~tlyk k`mryk~ kOlQyt @gn jWvw~vR@y~y.

mh@b`~{Q sm`g@m| sx`pwQ pqvQy, pQLQk` @r`~g mr\qn v&`p`r@y~ sx`pwQ, b`lqk; sAgm@y~ sx`pwQ, ln~dn~ @b_q~{ vQh`r@y~ x`rkr#, sms~w lAk` @b_q~{ sm|@m|ln@y~ up sx`pwQ, XYW lAk` j`wQk @v@L[ mN~dl@y~ nQr\m`w^ a`qW sAvQ{`nvl n`ykw~vy q#r$ @mwOm` 1978 jnv`rQ 02 vn qQn qQvQ m@g~ 82 vn vQytm pQvQ@sq~qW qQvAgw vW @m| vsrt avRr#qE 31 kQ. ewOm` upn~ bQm vR bLpQtQ@y~ v#lQwr pQhQtQ sQy nQ@vs h` idm sRn`mQ@yn~ vQpwt pw~vR ay @vnR@vn~ nQv`s sAkWr\Nyk~ wn` XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` n`myt uph`r @ls pQrQn#mWmt Z`wWn~ ktyRwO kLh. bLpQtQy, kUwr, @k`LB ngrvl XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ jWvm`n pYm`N@y~ pYwQm` pQhQtRv` a#wQ awr @m| qQnvl kwrgm ngr@y~q pYwQm`vk~ iqQ@vmQn~ pvwW. rjy mgQn~ smr# mRq~qryk~q nQkOw~ kr uph`r qk~v` a#wQ awr eq` @mq`wOr lAk`@v| sQylEm r`j& n`ykyn~ XYWmw~ sQrQl~ q @s`yQs` mhw`@g~ @XY~;~T @m@hvr k^wgON pRr\vkv agy` uph`r qk~v` a#w.

ahRn~gl~@l~ @q~. sR. q @s`yQs`

 

 

 
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